ISLAM and MUSLIMS IN JORDAN

      

General Information

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

National name: Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniya al-Hashimiyah

Land area: 35,344 sq mi (91,541 sq km); total area: 35,637 sq mi (92,300 sq km) excludes West Bank

Population (2008 est.): 6,198,677

Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Amman, 2,677,500 (metro. area), 1,293,200

Other large cities: Zarka, 512,200; Irbid, 267,200; As-Salt, 200,400

Monetary unit: Jordanian dinar

Languages: Arabic (official), English

Ethnicity/race: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

Religions: Islam (Sunni) 92%, Christian 6% (mostly Greek Orthodox), other 2%

National Holiday: Independence Day, May 25

Literacy rate: 90% (2003 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2007 est.): $28.18 billion; per capita $4,700. Real growth rate: 5.7%. Inflation: 5.4%.

The Middle East kingdom of Jordan is bordered on the west by Israel and the Dead Sea, on the north by Syria, on the east by Iraq, and on the south by Saudi Arabia. It is comparable in size to Indiana. Arid hills and mountains make up most of the country. The southern section of the Jordan River flows through the country.

In biblical times, the country that is now Jordan contained the lands of Edom, Moab, Ammon, and Bashan. Together with other Middle Eastern territories, Jordan passed in turn to the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Persians, and, about 330 B.C., the Seleucids. Conflict between the Seleucids and the Ptolemies enabled the Arabic-speaking Nabataeans to create a kingdom in southeast Jordan. In A.D. 106 it became part of the Roman province of Arabia and in 633–636 was conquered by the Arabs. In the 16th century, Jordan submitted to Ottoman Turkish rule and was administered from Damascus. Taken from the Turks by the British in World War I, Jordan (formerly known as Transjordan) was separated from the Palestine mandate in 1920, and in 1921, placed under the rule of Abdullah ibn Hussein. In 1923, Britain recognized Jordan's independence, subject to the mandate.

Islamic History and Muslims

More than 90 percent of population in Jordan adhered to Sunni Islam in the late 1980s. Although observance was not always orthodox, devotion to and identification with the faith was high. Islam was the established religion, and as such its institutions received government support. The 1952 Constitution stipulates that the king and his successors must be Muslims and sons of Muslim parents. Religious minorities included Christians of various denominations, a few Shi'a Muslims, and even fewer adherents of other faiths.

Islam in Social Life pre-1980s

Despite a strong identification with and loyalty to Islam, religious practices varied among segments of Jordan's population. This unevenness in practice did not necessarily correlate with a rural-urban division or differing levels of education. The religious observance of some Jordanians was marked by beliefs and practices that were sometimes antithetical to the teachings of Islam. Authorities attributed at least some of these elements to pre-Islamic beliefs and customs common to the area.

In daily life, neither rural dwellers nor urbanites were overly fatalistic. They did not directly hold God responsible for all occurrences; rather, they placed events in a religious context that imbued them with meaning. The expression inshallah (God willing) often accompanied statements of intention, and the term bismallah (in the name of God) accompanied the performance of most important actions. Such pronouncements did not indicate a ceding of control over one's life or events. Jordanian Muslims generally believed that in matters that they could control, God expected them to work diligently.

Muslims have other ways of invoking God's presence in daily life. Despite Islam's unequivocal teaching that God is one and that no being resembles him in sanctity, some people accepted the notion that certain persons (saints) have baraka, a special quality of personal holiness and affinity to God. The intercession of these beings was believed to help in all manner of trouble, and shrines to such people could be found in some localities. Devotees often visited the shrine of their patron, especially seeking relief from illness or inability to have children.

Numerous spiritual creatures were believed to inhabit the world. Evil spirits known as jinn--fiery, intelligent beings that are capable of appearing in human and other forms--could cause all sorts of malicious mischief. For protection, villagers carried in their clothing bits of paper inscribed with Qur'anic verses (amulets), and they frequently pronounced the name of God. A copy of the Qur'an was said to keep a house safe from jinn. The "evil eye" also could be foiled by the same means. Although any literate Muslim was able to prepare amulets, some persons gained reputations as being particularly skilled in prescribing and preparing them. To underscore the difficulty in drawing a fine distinction between orthodox and popular Islam, one only need note that some religious shaykhs were sought for their ability to prepare successful amulets. For example, in the 1980s in a village in northern Jordan, two elderly shaykhs (who also were brothers) were famous for their abilities in specific areas: one was skilled in warding off illness among children; the other was sought for his skills in curing infertility.

Their reverence for Islam notwithstanding, Muslims did not always practice strict adherence to the five pillars. Although most people tried to give the impression that they fulfilled their religious duties, many people did not fast during Ramadan. They generally avoided breaking the fast in public, however. In addition, most people did not contribute the required proportion of alms to support religious institutions, nor was pilgrimage to Mecca common. Attendance at public prayers and prayer in general increased during the 1980s as part of a regional concern with strengthening Islamic values and beliefs.

Traditionally, social segregation of the sexes prevented women from participating in much of the formal religious life of the community. The 1980s brought several changes in women's religious practices. Younger women, particularly university students, were seen more often praying in the mosques and could be said to have carved a place for themselves in the public domain of Islam.

Although some women in the late 1980s resorted to unorthodox practices and beliefs, women generally were considered more religiously observant than men. They fasted more than men and prayed more regularly in the home. Education, particularly of women, diminished the folk-religious component of belief and practice, and probably enhanced observance of the more orthodox aspects of Islam.


Islamic Revival 1980s onward

The 1980s witnessed a stronger and more visible adherence to Islamic customs and beliefs among significant segments of the population. The increased interest in incorporating Islam more fully into daily life was expressed in a variety of ways. Women wearing conservative Islamic dress and the head scarf were seen with greater frequency in the streets of urban as well as rural areas; men with beards also were more often seen. Attendance at Friday prayers rose, as did the number of people observing Ramadan.

Women in the 1980s, particularly university students, were actively involved in expressions of Islamic revival. Women wearing Islamic garb were a common sight at the country's universities. For example, the mosque at Yarmouk University had a large women's section. The section was usually full, and women there formed groups to study Islam. By and large, women and girls who adopted Islamic dress apparently did so of their own volition, although it was not unusual for men to insist that their sisters, wives, and daughters cover their hair in public.

The adoption of the Islamic form of dress did not signify a return to segregation of the sexes or female seclusion. Indeed, women who adopted Islamic clothing often were working women and students who interacted daily with men. They cited a lag in cultural attitudes as part of the reason for donning such dress. In other words, when dressed in Islamic garb they felt that they received more respect from and were taken more seriously by their fellow students and colleagues. Women also could move more readily in public if they were modestly attired. Increased religious observance also accounted for women's new style of dress. In the 1980s, Islamic dress did not indicate social status, particularly wealth, as it had in the past; Islamic dress was being worn by women of all classes, especially the lower and middle classes.

Several factors gave rise to increased adherence to Islamic practices. During the 1970s and 1980s, the Middle East region saw a rise of Islamic fundamentalism in response to economic recession and to the failure of nationalist politics to solve regional problems. In this context, Islam was an idiom for expressing social discontent. In Jordan, opposition politics had long been forbidden, and since the 1950s the Muslim Brotherhood had been the only legal political party. These factors were exacerbated by King Hussein's public support for the shah of Iran in his confrontation with Ayatollah Khomeini and the forces of opposition, by continued relations with Egypt in the wake of the 1979 Treaty of Peace Between Egypt and Israel, and by the king's support for Iraq in the Iran–Iraq War.

Although Islamic opposition politics never became as widespread in Jordan as in Iran and Egypt, they were pervasive enough for the regime to act swiftly to bring them under its aegis. By the close of the 1970s and throughout the 1980s, government-controlled television regularly showed the king and his brother Hasan attending Friday prayers. The media granted more time to religious programs and broadcasts. Aware that the Islamic movement might become a vehicle for expressing opposition to the regime and its policies, and in a move to repair relations with Syria, in the mid 1980s the government began to promote a moderate form of Islam, denouncing fanatical and intolerant forms.

 

King Hussein Mosque in Amman, Jordan

The King Abdullah I Mosque, built between 1982 and 1989 in Amman, Jordan. It is capped by a magnificent blue mosaic dome beneath which 3,000 Muslims may offer prayer.

 

The Abu Darweesh Mosque was built in 1961 by the Circassian community which came to settle in Amman

Almakarabin Mosque, on the Hedjaz Railway in Jordan

Mosque of Abu Ubeida ibn Al-Jarrah

Mosque in Petra, Jordan

  Islamic Centers and Organizations

مسجد الكالوتي, Amman, Amman
Phone: 065533618

Sajeda For Women Islamic Clothing, Amman
URL: www.sajeda.com  

AZRAQ AL SHISHAN MOSQUE, Azraq ash Shishan, oh
Phone: 216581-1314

جماعة الاخوان المسلمين, Amman


The Islamic Cultural Centre, Amman, Irbid
Phone: 00962-6-672155

Al-hidayah, Sama, mafraq
Phone: 00962259859

Al Emteyaz For Label Printing, Amman
Phone: +9626-4901087

Al-Hisn Islamic Charitable Organization, Irbid, jordan
Phone: 00962-2-210257

Charitable Organizations Union, Madaba
Phone: 00962-5-3243926

Basta center for islamic invention, Ma`an

  Al-Hisn Islamic Charitable Organization, Irbid
  Central Committee for Mosques Affairs Care, Amman
 
Charitable Organizations Union, Madaba

  Al albayt university, Mafraq
  Aqaba islamic charter society, Aqaba
  As safwah Schools, Amman
  Balqa' Islamic Schools, Salt
  Hera Islamic school, Souf
  Malaysian Student Of Medical Faculty Group, Irbid
  Qasid Institute for Classical Arabic, Amman
  مدار س دار الأرقم, Amman
  مدرسة الفاروق الثانوية الاسلامية, Zarqa'
  مدرسة سلبود الأساسية للبنين, Sahab
  مركز ملكا القرآني, Malka
  مركز الهداية القرآني, Irbid
  Zarqa Private University, Amman
  المدرسة الإسلامية, Irbid
  جمعية المحافظة على القران الكريم, Ain Janna
  جامعة مؤتة mutah university, Mu'tah
  جامعة اليرموك, Irbed
  حسن البنا /المدرسة الإسلامية, Irbid
 
دار تعليم وتحفيظ القرآن الكريم, Al Mazar


  General Union for the Muslim Scout, Amman
  International Institute for the Islamic Notion, Amman
  Islamic Charitable Organization/ Badres Village, Amman
  Islamic Crescents' Observation Project (ICOP), Amman
  Islamic Culture Charitable Organization, Amman
  Islamic Studies and Rresearches Organization, Amman
  Malaysian Students Association of Mutah University, Karak
  Malaysian Students Association of Yarmouk University, Irbid
  Solidarity Charitable Organization, Amman
  The Royal Academy for Researches on the Islamic Civilization, Amman
  مجلس الرعاية الاجتماعية, Amman
  مركز كفرسوم الاسلامي, Kufr Saum
  مركز حوارة القرآني / جمعية المحافظة على القرآن الكريم, Hawwarah
  مركز صويلح القرآني, Amman
  مركز عبد الله بن مسعود القراني, Irbid
  جماعة الاخوان المسلمين, Amman
  جمعية المحافظة على القرآن الكريم, Tafila
  جمعية المحافظة على القرآن الكريم, Amman
 
جمعية الثقافة العربية الإسلامية, Amman

  1 مسجد أمهات المؤمنين, Amman
  1مسجد المشهد mash'had Mosque- Karak, Karak
  1مسجد الوفاق, Wifaq Mosque - Amman, Amman
  Al Faihaa Mosque, Irbid
  Al Ghouj' Mosque, Amman
  Al Hashmi Mosque, Irbid
  Al-hidayah, Sama
  Al-Walidayn Mosque, Husn
  AlMohafatha Ala AlQur'an Association, Jarash
  Almuhandeseen Moeque, Irbid
  AZRAQ AL SHISHAN MOSQUE, Azraq ash Shishan
  Basta center for islamic invention, Ma`an
  Haj-Hassan Mosque, Amman
  Haroun Mosque, Amman
  HASAN ATTAL MOSQUE, Irbid
  Ibni Katheer Qura'an center, Irbid
  Imam Hasan Al-Bana mosque, Irbid
  Masab Bin Omair Mosque, Kufr Rakib
  Masjed Al shahid, Salt
  Masjed AL_RAHMAN.Sawada, Salt
  Masjed Berket el 3amreh, Salt
  masjed el3ezreah, Salt
  Masjed-wade alseer al-kabeer, Amman
  Masjid Al Shishan, Zarqa'
  Masjid Al- tafilah Alkabeer, Tafila
  MASJID AL-DA'AWAH, Sama
  Masjid Al-faruoq, Sama
  Masjid Alfaiha, Sahab
  MASJID EL BILBEISI, Amman
  Masjid Hamza, Kufr `Awan
  Masjid Madeenat Al Hujjaj / Dawa wa Tableegh, Amman
  Masjid Saddam / Irbid - amman St, Husn
  Moslemoon Al qoqaz, Amman
  Mosques alrashed, Amman
  Mousque and Culture Society of Khalid Bin Walid, Amman
  musala alnaser, Amman
  Old Bayt Ras Mosque, Bayt Ra's
  Omar Bin al-Khattab Mosque, Zarqa'
  Omare ben Alkatab Mosque, Haufa
  Redwan quran center, Amman
  Sa'd Bin Sinan mousque, Bayt Yafa
  Sa'ed Bin Obadah Mosques, Kufr Rakib
  Salah Aldeen Alauobi, Az Zarqa
  Saleh al Hemer Mosque, Zarqa'
  The Islamic Centre of Rama Sinkage, Amman
  The Islamic Cultural Centre, Amman
  The Old Mosque, Kufr `Awan
  Tibah masjedمسجد طيبة, Amman
  مركز الإمام الألباني, Amman
 
مركز التقوى القرآني, Irbid

  مركز الشونة الشمالية الاسلامي, Shuna Shamaliya
  مركز الشجرة القرآني, Shajarah
  مركز طارق القرآني, Amman
  مسـجد الزغـل, Amman
  مسجد الحاج داوود, Amman
  مسجد ابو بكر الصديق, Ar Ramtha
  مسجد فالح التل, Irbid
  مسجد مخيم اربد, Irbid
  مسجد مصعب بن عمير, Mafraq
  مسجد معان الكبير, Ma`ain
  مسجد ناعور الكبير, Na`ur
  مسجد أم العلا Masjed Um Al-Ola, Amman
  مسجد أبو ذر الغفاري, Ramtha
  مسجد أبوبكر الصديق, Amman
  مسجد أبي بكر الصديق, Kufrinjah
  مسجد أسامة بن زيد, Karak
  مسجد أسامة بن زيد, Hawwarah
  مسجد أصحاب رسول الله, Az Zarqa'
  مسجد الفالوجة, Amman
  مسجد الفاروق, Halawa
  مسجد الفرقان, Irbid
  مسجد الفضل بن عباس, Amman
  مسجد الكالوتي, Amman
  مسجد الملك عبد الله, Amman
  مسجد المنصور, Amman
  مسجد المهاجرين, Irbid
  مسجد المحسنين, Amman
  مسجد المرحوم ملحم التل, Irbid
  مسجد المغيرة بن شعبة, Irbid
  مسجد المغيرة بن شعبة, Shajarah
  مسجد النور, Zarqa'
  مسجد الهامي, Irbid
  مسجد الإسكان, Salt
  مسجد الإسراء, Amman
  مسجد الاسراء, Irbid
  مسجد التقوى, Et Taiyiba
  مسجد التابعين, Amman
  مسجد الثنية الكبير, Karak
  مسجد الجامعة, Irbid
  مسجد الحاجة صبرية الخطيب, Suwaylih
  مسجد الخلفاء الراشدين) حي السبعاوية ), Mafraq
  مسجد الروضة المباركة, Amman
  مسجد الزبير بن العوام, Ar Ramtha
  مسجد الزبير بن العوام,
  مسجد الزبير بن العوام,
  مسجد الزبير بن العوام, Qumeim
  مسجد السيدة عائشة أم المؤمنين, Amman
  مسجد الشهيد , Amman
  مسجد الشهداء, Mu'tah
 
مسجد الشهداء, Karak

مسجد الشيخ صالح الشريف, Mafraq
  مسجد الصالحين, Na`ur
  مسجد الصالحين, Amman
  مسجد الصحابة, Amman
  مسجد الصديق, Amman
  مسجد الطيبة الكبير, Et Taiyiba
  مسجد الطباع, Amman
  مسجد العين البيضاء الكبير, الطفيله/العين البيضا
  مسجد انس بن مالك, Mafraq
  مسجد انس بن مالك, Amman
  مسجد ابو محجن الثقفي, Irbid
  مسجد ابو هريرة, Amman
  مسجد ابو بكر الصديق, Mu'tah
  مسجد ابي ذر الغفاري, Irbid
  مسجد اسامه بن زيد, Mafraq
  مسجد بلال بن رباح, Irbid
  مسجد جحفية الجنوبي, Irbid
  مسجد جعفر الطيار, Wadi Musa
  مسجد جعفر بن ابي طالب رضي الله عنه, Al Mazar
  مسجد حمزة بن عبد المطلب, Ramtha
  مسجد حمزة بن عبدالمطلب, Mafraq
  مسجد حور, Irbid
  مسجد حي نزال الكبير, Amman
  مسجد حذيفة ابن اليمان, Amman
  مسجد خليل الرحمن, Amman
  مسجد خالد بن الوليد, Na`ur
  مسجد خالد بن الوليد, Ramtha
  مسجد خالد بن الوليد, Irbid
  مسجد خديجة, Amman
  مسجد خديجة الكبرى, Karak
  مسجد رمضان, Amman
  مسجد زكي ابو عيد, Amman
  مسجد سامتا, Samta
  مسجد سحاب الكبير, Amman
  مسجد سعيد بن الجبير, Shajarah
  مسجد شرحبيل بن حسنه , Mafraq
  مسجد صلاح الدين, Shaubak
  مسجد صلاح الدين الأيوبي, Irbid
  مسجد صما الكبير, Samma
  مسجد طارق بن زياد الكبير, Amman
  مسجد علي الدخيل, Irbid
  مسجد عمار بن ياسر, Amman
  مسجد عمار بن ياسر, Irbid
  مسجد عمر بن العاص, Amman
  مسجد عمر بن عبد العزيز, Amman
  مسجد عين جنا الكبير, Ain Janna
  مسجد عبد الرحمن بن عوف, Amman
  مسجد عبدالقادر الحسيني, Zarqa'
  مسجد عبدالله بن مسعود, Amman
  مسجد عبدالعزيز المغربي, معان
مسجدسعيد بن جبير, الشجرة
  Wadi Musa big Masjid, Wadi Musa
  أبو بكر الصديق, Ramtha
  المسجد الكبير, Qumeim
  المسجد العمري, Karak
  المسجد العمري الكبير, Ramtha
  المسجد الغربي, Samma
  الجامع الكبير, Kufrinjah
  الزبير بن العوام, Qumaym
  جمعية المحافظه على القرآن الكريم, Ajlun
  جمعية المركز الاسلامي, Madaba
  جامع الفاروق, Tila` Al `Ali
 
خالد بن الوليد, Amman

   Muslim Owned Business

ABEDAH FOR EMBROIDERY, Amman
  Abu-Aisha SuperMarkets, Amman
  Al Emteyaz For Label Printing, Amman
  Alanbat Hotel, Wadi Musa
  Bait almaqdes for islamic fashion, Amman
  Basema Pharmacy, Amman
  Jilbab For Islamic Clothing Ins., Amman
  Sajeda For Women Islamic Clothing, Amman
  SHUKR Islamic Clothing, Amman
  مؤسسة حسين ابو نجم و اولاده, Amman
  مؤسسة صوت الكرك الاسلامية, Karak
  تسجيلات أم القرى الإسلامية, Mafraq
  تسجيلات بيت المقدس, Amman
  تصنيع ساعات اظهار موعد الآذان, Zarqa'
  جمعية ابناء الجليل التعاونية, Al Baq`ah
  راما هوم للمفروشات والتصميم الداخلي, Amman
  رائد للزي الاسلامي, Irbid
 
صلاح العجوري للكهربائيات, Amman

References
Islam in Jordan ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Jordan   , September, 2008).
Info please ( http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107670.html ,  September, 2008).
Islam Finder ( http://www.islamicfinder.org/cityPrayerNew.php?country=jordan   , September, 2008).
World Religions Statistics ( http://www.adherents.com/adhloc/xx , September, 2008).
Anonymous, Documents from Representatives of Islamic Organizations in Jordan, September 2008.