ISLAM and MUSLIMS IN
Republic of the Philippines
Land area: 115,124 sq mi (298,171 sq km); total area:
115,830 sq mi (300,000 sq km)
Population (2007 est.): 91,077,287
Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Manila,
10,677,000 (metro. area), 1,581,082 (city proper)
Other large cities: Quezon City (2000 est.),
1,669,776 (part of Manila metro. area); Cebu (2003 est.), 761,900
Monetary unit: Peso
Languages: Filipino (based on Tagalog), English (both
official); eight major dialects: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or
Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense
Ethnicity/race: Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano
9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other
Religions: Roman Catholic 81%, Evangelical 3%,
Iglesia ni Kristo 2%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 5%, Islam 5% (2000)
Literacy rate: 96% (2003 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2007 est.): $299.6
billion; per capita $3,400. Real growth rate: 7.3%. Inflation:
The Philippine Islands are an archipelago of over 7,000 islands lying about
500 mi (805 km) off the southeast coast of Asia. The overall land area is
comparable to that of Arizona. Only about 7% of the islands are larger than one
square mile, and only one-third have names. The largest are Luzon in the north
(40,420 sq mi; 104,687 sq km), Mindanao in the south (36,537 sq mi; 94,631 sq
km), and Samar (5,124 sq mi; 13,271 sq km). The islands are of volcanic origin,
with the larger ones crossed by mountain ranges. The highest peak is Mount Apo
(9,690 ft; 2,954 m) on Mindanao.
The Philippines' aboriginal inhabitants arrived from the Asian mainland
around 25,000 B.C. They were followed by waves of
Indonesian and Malayan settlers from 3000 B.C.
onward. By the 14th century A.D., extensive trade was
being conducted with India, Indonesia, China, and Japan.
Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain,
explored the Philippines in 1521. Twenty-one years later, a Spanish exploration
party named the group of islands in honor of Prince Philip, who was later to
become Philip II of Spain. Spain retained possession of the islands for the next
The Philippines were ceded to the U.S. in 1899 by the Treaty of Paris after
the Spanish-American War. Meanwhile, the Filipinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, had
declared their independence. They initiated guerrilla warfare against U.S.
troops that persisted until Aguinaldo's capture in 1901. By 1902, peace was
established except among the Islamic Moros on the southern island of Mindanao.
The first U.S. civilian governor-general was William Howard Taft (1901–1904).
The Jones Law (1916) established a Philippine legislature composed of an
elective Senate and House of Representatives. The Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934)
provided for a transitional period until 1946, at which time the Philippines
would become completely independent. Under a constitution approved by the people
of the Philippines in 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines came into being
with Manuel Quezon y Molina as president.
On Dec. 8, 1941, the islands were invaded by Japanese troops. Following the
fall of Gen. Douglas MacArthur's forces at Bataan and Corregidor, Quezon
instituted a government-in-exile that he headed until his death in 1944. He was
succeeded by Vice President Sergio Osmeña. U.S. forces under MacArthur reinvaded
the Philippines in Oct. 1944 and, after the liberation of Manila in Feb. 1945,
Osmeña reestablished the government.
The Philippines achieved full independence on July 4, 1946. Manuel A. Roxas y
Acuña was elected its first president, succeeded by Elpidio Quirino (1948–1953),
Ramón Magsaysay (1953–1957), Carlos P. García (1957–1961), Diosdado Macapagal
(1961–1965), and Ferdinand E. Marcos (1965–1986).
Islamic History and Muslims
Islam is one of the oldest organized
religions to be established in the Philippines. Islam reached the islands in the
14th century with the arrival of Indian, Malay and Javanese merchants, and Arab
missionaries from various sultanates in the Malay Archipelago, although the
spread of Islam in the Philippines is due to the strength of Muslim India. India
brought Islam to Southeast Asia, specifically Malaysia and Indonesia, and in
turn the latter two brought Islam to the Philippines.
In 1380, Karim ul' Makhdum, the first Islamic missionary to reach the Sulu
Archipelago and Jolo, brought Islam to what is now the Philippines. The Sheik
Karimal Makdum Mosque was the first mosque established in the Philippines on
Simunul. Subsequent visits by Arab Muslim missionaries from the now Islamicized
Malaysia and Indonesia, helped strengthen the Islamic faith in the Philippines,
mostly in the south but as far north as Manila. Vast sultanates were
established, comprised of the Sultanate of Maguindanao and the Sultanate of
Sulu. Since the first people who established themselves as sultans in various
parts of the Malay Archipelago—Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines—were
usually of Arab descent, most people of royal lineage claim Arab descent, some
going as far as claiming descent from the Prophet Muhammad himself.
The world resurgence of Islam after World War II gave Muslims in the Philippines
a stronger sense of unity as a religious community than they had in the past.
Since the early 1970s, the number of Muslim teachers visiting the country and
Filipino Muslims traveling abroad—either on the Hajj or on scholarships—has
increased to unprecedented levels. As a result, Muslims have built many new
mosques and religious schools, where students (male and female) learn the basic
rituals and principles of Islam and learn to read the Qur'an in Arabic. A number
of Muslim institutions of higher learning, such as the Jamiatul Philippine
al-Islamia in Marawi, also offer advanced courses in Islamic studies.
The periods following the demise of the Prophet Muhammad - led to the expansion
of Islam to Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia. In Southeast Asia, Islam was
promulgated by three methods: by Muslim traders in the course of peaceful trade;
by preachers and holy men who set out from India and Arabia specifically to
convert idolaters and animist and increase the knowledge of the faithful; and by
war waged against heathen states.
Trading served as a strong factors in spreading Islam in Southeast Asia, with
Muslim merchants interested not only in the commercial aspects of life, but in
the spiritual as well, providing Islamic knowledge to the uniformed through
It was in North Sumatra that the trade route from India and the west reached the
archipelago, and Islam first obtained a firm footing in Southeast Asia. Malacca
, the main trading center of the area in the 15th century, became the great
stronghold of the faith, from where it spread out. In the 10th century, Islam's
influence intensified and reached as far as ancient Malaysia. This in turn would
affect its growth in what would become The Philippines.
The strength of the Sulu sultanate in the early 14th was enhanced by Malay
leaders who helped the natives in political, economic, and religious
developments. Among others, Rajah Baguinda, a Sumatrans prince, came to the
Philippines in 1390 with a group of men, all learned in Islam. They settled in
Buwansa, which became the first capital of the sultanate of Sulu, and Abubakhar
his son-in-law became the first sultan.
The early missionaries who came to the Philippines were guided by Islamic
principles of no religious compulsion, thus the gradual and liberal promulgation
of Islam. Known as Mukhdumin, these missionaries did not mean to conquer the
territories or exploit its inhabitants but to teach, and guide people to the
Paramount among them was Rajah Baguinda, followed by his son-in-law Sharieful
Hashim, who served as the first sultan of Sulu. Afterestablishing a community
and assuming leadership doctrines on tawhid(Monotheism) to eradicate polytheism,
animism and idolatry.
Islam gives the Philippines Muslim their life meaning and direction. The concept
of monotheism does not only enlighten them on the absolute oneness of God, but
emphasizes to them the quality of an Ummah(Islamic Nation) described by the Holy
Qur'an, as a single nation (21:92) characterized by a fraternal bond binding all
its members together. It accentuates the brotherhood of man and the kinship of
Muslim. Their adherence to the Islamic faith changed the destiny of their
fragmented society to a Bangsa Tungga (Single Nation), the Islamic Ummah. This
Cesar Majul explains thus: "It becomes clearly demonstrated that what gave the
Muslims in the Philippines their cohesion and sense of community was Islam. It
was Islam that institutionalized their loyalty to their Sultans, gave them a
system of writing, sanctioned their attempts to resist alien rule, and gave a
religious character to their patriotism."
Two century before the coming of Western colonizers to the Philippines, the
Muslim enjoyed full independence, and had a well-organized government, the
sultanate, which attained various achievements at the height of its power. The
sultan served as both political and religious leaders, protector and defender of
Islam, following the Islamic political system of no separation between church
and state. As a religious leader, the sultan was called Zillullah fil-ard,
shadow of God in earth, based on the Islamic political point a view that man,
particularly a leader, is the vice0regent of God.
With the coming of the Spaniards and the Americans, the Bangsa Islam declined.
Both colonial powers incorporated the independent Bangsa Islam into the
Philippines state, reducing the power of the sultan, especially during the
The Muslim courageously resisted the Spanish conquistadors, but it cost them in
terms of socioeconomic development, which remained almost at zero level because
of the constant wars. While the natives of the Visayas and Luzon easily
succumbed to the Spaniards, the Muslim continued to defend their Bangsa, tau,
iban, agama (Nation, People, and Religion).
Spain resorted to massive propaganda to win the war, one weapon of which was
religious nationalism. Its religious introduced Christianity as the only true
religion , with Islam therefore "a false religion". This outraged the Muslim,
who became more determined to fight, thus the resistance in the name of jihad
(holy war) with the battle cry: Kamatay sampay kamaharhikaan (Death until
victory is Achieved).
Another type of propaganda the Spaniards used was name-calling. Instead of
calling the Islamic people of Mindanao Muslims, they named them Moros, with
negative connotations of being pirates, juramentados, repulsive, sinister, and
Incredibly, Muslims in the Philippines intermittently apply the term Moro as the
rallying point for unification of the different linguistic communities that
profess Islam. The idea is to consolidate those different tribes into one body
or nation that would formulate a common stand against any force that tried to
subjugate and exploit their country, people, and natural resources.
From Spanish colonization up to the American regime and the present, the Moros
have remained faithful to Islam. Whenever they feel that external presences and
exploitation are hanging over their heads, their only alternative is to develop
the internal factor, religious consciousness. Islam, which preaches Jihad when
there is imminent danger of religious proselytization and colonization, has made
them stand firm to defend their faith. This deepening Islamic awareness has
become the mobilizing factor that fuses the different Moro tribes into bangsa
tunggal (a single nation) as part of the Islamic universal concept of ummah
Islamiah, the main tenet of which is the brotherhood of Muslim all over the
world. Thus the problem of one Bangsa is the quandary of all the Ummah.
When other Muslim states come to their rescue, it is not a matter of
intervention in sovereignty and territorial integrity, but a religious duty.
The Muslims in the Philippines can be key factors in the establishment of a
cordial relationship, better understanding and an esprit de corps with the
Muslim world. The Filipino Muslims' existence as part of the Muslim ummah is not
in the context of a minority, but in that of a far reaching spread of citizenry
who dwell in a single nation and have an unshakable affinity, the Islamic
brotherhood (ukhywwah Islamayah), comparable to an edifice in which each part of
the structure reinforces all others.
Islam is one of the oldest organized religions to be established in the
Philippines. Its origins in the country may be dated back to as early as the
15th century, with the arrival of Arab and Malay muslim traders who converted
some of the native inhabitants of the islands. Muslims in the country form 5
percent of the national population.
The Philippine territory was under Islamic rule when the Spaniards arrived and
colonized it. Magellan was killed by a Muslim chieftain. Manila (May nilad )was
originally Islamic until Miguel López de Legazpi conquered it. Intramoros means
Among the moors. The Filipino word moro comes from the Spanish word for the
inhabitants of Morroco. A tenacious Islamic legacy is the custom to
circumsize('tuli'). When the Spaniards arrived, circumsicion was justified as
being Christian. Being uncircumsized is considered shameful in Filipino society.
In the early 1990s, Filipino Muslims were firmly rooted in their Islamic faith.
Every year many went on the hajj (pilgrimage) to the holy city of Mecca; on
return men would be addressed by the honoritic "hajj" and women the honorific
"hajji". In most Muslim communities, there was at least one mosque from which
the muezzin called the faithful to prayer five times a day. Those who responded
to the call to public prayer removed their shoes before entering the mosque,
aligned themselves in straight rows before the minrab (niche), and offered
prayers in the direction of Mecca. An imam, or prayer leader, led the recitation
in Arabic verses from the Quran, following the practices of the Sunni sect of
Islam common to most of the Muslim world. It was sometimes said that the Moros
often neglected to perform the ritual prayer and did not strictly abide by the
fast (no food or drink in daylight hours) during Ramadan, the ninth month of the
Muslim calendar, or perform the duty of almsgiving. They did, however,
scrupulously observe other rituals and practices and celebrate great festivals
of Islam such as the end of Ramadan; Muhammad's birthday; the night of his
ascension to heaven; and the start of the Muslim New Year, the first day of the
month of Muharram.
Islam in the Philippines has absorbed indigenous elements, much as has
Catholicism. Moros thus make offerings to spirits (diwatas), malevolent or
benign, believing that such spirits can and will have an effect on one's health,
family, and crops. They also include pre-Islamic customs in ceremonies marking
rites of passage--birth, marriage, and death. Moros share the essentials of
Islam, but specific practices vary from one Moro group to another. Although
Muslim Filipino women are required to stay at the back of the mosque for prayers
(out of the sight of men), they are much freer in daily life than are women in
many other Islamic societies.
Because of the world resurgence of Islam since World War II, Muslims in the
Philippines have a stronger sense of their unity as a religious community than
they had in the past. Since the early 1970s, more Muslim teachers have visited
the nation and more Philippine Muslims have gone abroad--either on the hajj or
on scholarships--to Islamic centers than ever before. They have returned
revitalized in their faith and determined to strengthen the ties of their fellow
Moros with the international Islamic community. As a result, Muslims have built
many new mosques and religious schools, where students (male and female) learn
the basic rituals and principles of Islam and learn to read the Quran in Arabic.
A number of Muslim institutions of higher learning, such as the Jamiatul
Philippine al-Islamia in Marawi, also offer advanced courses in Islamic studies.
Divisions along generational lines have emerged among Moros since the 1960s.
Many young Muslims, dissatisfied with the old leaders, asserted that datu and
sultans were unnecessary in modern Islamic society. Among themselves, these
young reformers were divided between moderates, working within the system for
their political goals, and militants, engaging in guerrilla-style warfare. To
some degree, the government managed to isolate the militants, but Muslim
reformers, whether moderates or militants, were united in their strong religious
adherence. This bond was significant, because the Moros felt threatened by the
continued expansion of Christians into southern Mindanao and by the prolonged
presence of Philippine army troops in their homeland.
Muslims, about 5 percent of the total population, were the most significant
minority in the Philippines. Although undifferentiated racially from other
Filipinos, in the 1990s they remained outside the mainstream of national life,
set apart by their religion and way of life. In the 1970s, in reaction to
consolidation of central government power under martial law, which began in
1972, the Muslim Filipino, or Moro population increasingly identified with the
worldwide Islamic community, particularly in Malaysia, Indonesia, Libya, and
Middle Eastern countries. Longstanding economic grievances stemming from years
of governmental neglect and from resentment of popular prejudice against them
contributed to the roots of Muslim insurgency.
Moros were confined almost entirely to the southern part of the
country--southern and western Mindanao, southern Palawan, and the Sulu
Archipelago. Ten subgroups could be identified on the basis of language. Three
of these groups made up the great majority of Moros. They were the Maguindanaos
of North Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and Maguindanao provinces; the Maranaos of
the two Lanao provinces; and the Tausugs, principally from Jolo Island. Smaller
groups were the Samals and Bajaus, principally of the Sulu Archipelago; the
Yakans of Zamboanga del Sur Province; the Ilanons and Sangirs of Southern
Mindanao Region; the Melabugnans of southern Palawan; and the Jama Mapuns of the
tiny Cagayan Islands.
Muslim Filipinos traditionally have not been a closely knit or even allied
group. They were fiercely proud of their separate identities, and conflict
between them was endemic for centuries. In addition to being divided by
different languages and political structures, the separate groups also differed
in their degree of Islamic orthodoxy. For example, the Tausugs, the first group
to adopt Islam, criticized the more recently Islamicized Yakan and Bajau peoples
for being less zealous in observing Islamic tenets and practices. Internal
differences among Moros in the 1980s, however, were outweighed by commonalities
of historical experience vis-à-vis non-Muslims and by shared cultural, social,
and legal traditions.
The traditional structure of Moro society focused on a sultan who was both a
secular and a religious leader and whose authority was sanctioned by the Quran.
The datu were communal leaders who measured power not by their holdings in
landed wealth but by the numbers of their followers. In return for tribute and
labor, the datu provided aid in emergencies and advocacy in disputes with
followers of another chief. Thus, through his agama (court--actually an informal
dispute-settling session), a datu became basic to the smooth function of Moro
society. He was a powerful authority figure who might have as many as four wives
and who might enslave other Muslims in raids on their villages or in debt
bondage. He might also demand revenge (maratabat) for the death of a follower or
upon injury to his pride or honor.
The datu continued to play a central role in Moro society in the 1980s. In many
parts of Muslim Mindanao, they still administered the sharia (sacred Islamic
law) through the agama. They could no longer expand their circle of followers by
raiding other villages, but they achieved the same end by accumulating wealth
and then using it to provide aid, employment, and protection for less fortunate
neighbors. Datu support was essential for government programs in a Muslim
barangay. Although a datu in modern times rarely had more than one wife,
polygamy was permitted so long as his wealth was sufficient to provide for more
than one. Moro society was still basically hierarchical and familial, at least
in rural areas.
The national government policies instituted immediately after independence in
1946 abolished the Bureau for Non-Christian Tribes used by the United States to
deal with minorities and encouraged migration of Filipinos from densely settled
areas such as Central Luzon to the "open" frontier of Mindanao. By the l950s,
hundreds of thousands of Ilongos, Ilocanos, Tagalogs, and others were settling
in North Cotabato and South Cotabato and Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur
provinces, where their influx inflamed Moro hostility. The crux of the problem
lay in land disputes. Christian migrants to the Cotabatos, for example,
complained that they bought land from one Muslim only to have his relatives
refuse to recognize the sale and demand more money. Muslims claimed that
Christians would title land through government agencies unknown to Muslim
residents, for whom land titling was a new institution. Distrust and resentment
spread to the public school system, regarded by most Muslims as an agency for
the propagation of Christian teachings. By 1970, a terrorist organization of
Christians called the Ilagas (Rats) began operating in the Cotabatos, and Muslim
armed bands, called Blackshirts, appeared in response. The same thing happened
in the Lanaos, where the Muslim Barracudas began fighting the Ilagas. Philippine
army troops sent in to restore peace and order were accused by Muslims of siding
with the Christians. When martial law was declared in 1972, Muslim Mindanao was
The Philippine government discovered shortly after independence that there was a
need for some kind of specialized agency to deal with the Muslim minority and so
set up the Commission for National Integration in 1957, which was later replaced
by the Office of Muslim Affairs and Cultural Communities. Filipino nationalists
envisioned a united country in which Christians and Muslims would be offered
economic advantages and the Muslims would be assimilated into the dominant
culture. They would simply be Filipinos who had their own mode of worship and
who refused to eat pork. This vision, less than ideal to many Christians, was
generally rejected by Muslims who feared that it was a euphemistic equivalent of
assimilation. Concessions were made to Muslim religion and customs. Muslims were
exempted from Philippine laws prohibiting polygamy and divorce, and in 1977 the
government attempted to codify Muslim law on personal relationships and to
harmonize Muslim customary law with Philippine law. A significant break from
past practice was the 1990 establishment of the Autonomous Region in Muslim
Mindanao, which gave Muslims in the region control over some aspects of
government, but not over national security and foreign affairs.
There were social factors in the early 1990s that militated against the cultural
autonomy sought by Muslim leaders. Industrial development and increased
migration outside the region brought new educational demands and new roles for
women. These changes in turn led to greater assimilation and, in some cases,
even intermarriage. Nevertheless, Muslims and Christians generally remained
distinct societies often at odds with one another.
Bangsamoro is the name of the area claimed by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
(MILF) in the Philippines. The MILF seeks to establish an independent Islamic
state in the southern Philippines. Bangsamoro covers the provinces of Lanao del
Sur, Maguindanao, Cotabato, South Cotabato. Davao del Sur, Sarangani, Sultan
Kudarat, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, Basilan, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi. It
also includes the southern portion of the province of Palawan.
The term Bangsamoro also refers to the Filipino Muslim people, in general. These
include the Tausug and the Maguindanaoans.
The term Bangsamoro comes from the Malay word bangsa, meaning nation or people,
and the Spanish word moro, from the older Spanish word Moor, the
Reconquista-period term for Arabs or Muslims.
The Moro Rebellion was the second phase of the Philippine-American War,
following the so-called Philippine Insurrection phase. After the capture of
Philippine patriot Emilio Aguinaldo and the surrender of the majority of
Philippine forces on Luzon, many regions remained beyond the control of the
American forces. In spite of the announcement of President Theodore Roosevelt in
1902 that the Philippines had been subdued, sporadic fighting continued in many
The southern area of the Philippine Islands continued to resist strenuously.
With great difficulty, American forces gained control over the remainder of the
Philippine Islands, particularly the moslem (Moro) island centered on Mindanao.
The Moro Rebellion did not abate until 1913, when the American government
promised the eventual independence of the country.
Modern Muslim inhabitants of the southern Philippines see the Moro Rebellion as
one phase of a continuing struggle against outside influences, the Spanish, the
Americans, and the central government of the Philippines.
Circumcision is practiced due to the
influence of Islam. A strong Islamic legacy has been left behind in the
Philippines in the custom to circumcise (pagtutuli or, simply tuli, in Filipino)
young boys. (Note: Circumcision is not mentioned in the Koran, but is mentioned
in Hadith and considered an important Sunnah.) When the Spaniards arrived,
circumcision was justified as being Christian. To this day, being uncircumcised
is stigmatized in Philippine society. Even to non-Muslim Filipinos, it is
considered effeminate to be uncircumcised (Filipino: supot), and one isn't
considered a "full man" unless he is circumcised.
This article or section contains weasel
words, vague phrasing that often accompanies biased or unverifiable information.
Such statements should be clarified or removed.
Every year, many Filipino Muslims go on a pilgrimage (hajj) to the holy city of
Mecca; upon returning men are bestowed with the honorific title "hajji" and
women the honorific "hajja". In most Muslim communities, there is at least one
mosque from which the muezzin call the faithful to prayer five times a day.
Those who respond to the call to public prayer follow Muslim custom in removing
their shoes before entering the Mosque, aligning themselves in straight rows
before the minbar (niche), and offering prayers in the direction of Mecca. An
Imam, or prayer leader, leads the recitation in Arabic verses from the Qur'an,
following the practices of the Sunni sect of Islam common to most of the world.
Moros, who comprise most of the Muslim population in Mindanao, are observant
regarding performing the ritual prayer and have strictly abided by the fast (no
food or drink in daylight hours) during Ramadan, or performed the duty of
almsgiving. They also observe other rituals and practices and celebrate Islamic
festivals such as the end of Ramadan (Eid ul-Fitr); Muhammad's birthday; the
night of his ascension to heaven; and the start of the Muslim New Year, the
first day of the month of Muharram.
Along with Catholicism, Islam in the
Philippines has absorbed indigenous elements. Moros, in particular, make
offerings to spirits (diwatas), malevolent or benign, believing that such
spirits can and will have an effect on one's health, family, and crops.
Philippines - Muslim Filipinos
Islam in the Philippines
Moro (ethnic group)
Mosques in the Philippines
Isnilon Totoni Hapilon
Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Moro National Liberation Front
National Commission on Muslim Filipinos
Philippine Airlines Flight 434
2002 Zamboanga bombing
Bangsamoro territory under Moro control
The Moro are a multilingual ethnic group
and the largest mainly non-Christian ethnic group in the Philippines, comprising
about 5.25% of the total Philippine population as of 2005, making them the sixth
largest ethnic group in the country. Their name originated from the Spanish word
Moor, and they mostly live in a region dubbed as Bangsamoro in the southern
Philippines. Due to migration, Moro communities have also begun to appear in
major cities like Manila, Cebu and Baguio.
Muslims and Christians have generally remained distinct societies. When the
Spanish arrived in the 15th century, they successfully integrated the northern
and middle regions of the current Philippines into their growing empire.
However, the Muslim South long remained a site of resistance and violence.
Consequently, it grew isolated from the Westernizing influences of Spanish rule,
including education, trade, and economic development. When the Philippines were
ceded to the United States by Spain following the Spanish-American War, the new
American administration treated the restive South as a separate entity with a
separate administration. As with the Spanish, the violence endemic to the region
continued the trend of isolation, with the Moro regions receiving little benefit
from the US government investment, including the Thomasite teachers,
establishment of economic institutions, and infrastructure investment.
Consequently, by the time of independence in 1945, the Moro regions remained
vastly underdeveloped in comparison to the rest of the nation, with a population
that was highly illiterate and poorly educated, with an economy dependant on
subsistence farming. The cycle of violence, lack of investment, and more
violence has plagued the region ever since. The migration of wealthy, educated
Christian Malays, mainly Cebuanos from the Visayas, into traditionally Moro
areas contributed to the endemic resentment of the Moros to the Christian Malay
majority (who today make up majorities in many historically Moro regions), and
acted as an impetus for calls for an independent Moro homeland known as
A significant change of government policy led to the 1990 creation of the
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, which gave Moros in the region control
over certain aspects of government, but not their security and foreign affairs.
Social factors in the early 1990s contributed against the political autonomy
sought by Muslim leaders. Industrial development and increased migration outside
the region brought new educational demands and new roles for women. These
changes in turn led to greater assimilation and, including intermarriage.
The "homeland" of the Moro is Bangsamoro, the word comes from the Malay word
bangsa, meaning nation or people, and the word Moro. Bangsamoro covers the
provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur,
Maguindanao, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi,
Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga Sibugay. It also includes
the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Marawi,
Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga.
The concept of the sultan was brought to the Philippines through Islamization.
The presence of Islam, began the creation of sultanates like that of Magindanao
and othat of Sulu. Meanwhile, the datu was the traditional ruler in Filipino
societies. Their function was similar to the duke. In return for tribute and
labor, the datu provides aid in emergencies and mediates disputes with other
communities through the agamat. They may also have four wives if they wish. In
the past, datus have led raids on other villages in order to seek revenge ('maratabat)
for the death of a follower or the injury of his honor.
Datus currently act as the community leaders in Moro societies and administer
the Sharia (Muslim law) through the agama. The datu essentially heads government
programs in Moro communities, which tend to be hierarchical in rural areas.
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)
is headed by a Regional Governor. The Regional Governor, along with the
Regional-Vice Governor, act as the executive branch.
The ARMM has a unicameral Regional Assembly headed by a Speaker. This acts as
the legislative branch for the region and is responsible for regional
ordinances. It is composed of three members for every congressional district.
The current membership is twenty-four.
Islam has been the most dominant influence
on the Moro culture. Islamic polygamous marriages are approved by public
authorities while polygamy is considered illegal for non-Muslim citizens. Pork
is not eaten since it considered taboo under the Qu'ran. Another practice is
Islamic circumcision (tuli). However, circumcision is also very common practice
among non-Muslim Filipino males.
Dominant Moro subgroups.There are at least ten ethnic subgroups within the Moro
ethnic group, all descended from the same prehistoric Austronesian migrations
from Taiwan that populated the rest of the Philippines and Maritime Southeast
Asia. These could be identified on the basis of language. Three of these groups
make up the majority of the Moro. They are the Maguindanaons of North Cotabato,
Sultan Kudarat, and Maguindanao provinces; the Maranao of the two Lanao
provinces; and the Tausug of the Sulu Archipelago. Smaller groups include the
Banguingui, Samal and the Bajau of the Sulu Archipelago; the Yakan of Basilan
and Zamboanga del Sur; the Illanun and Sangir of Davao; the Melabugnans of
southern Palawan; and the Jama Mapuns of Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi Island.
Moros are not closely knit and they lack solidarity. Each group is proud of
their culture, identity and language, including their variation of Islam.
Endemic conflict has persisted for centuries. Internal differences among the
Moros existed in the 1980s, however, these were outweighed by cultural, social,
and traditional aspects as well as shared historical experiences vis-à-vis
During 1380, the arrival of Arab
missionaries, including Makhdum Karim, in Tawi-Tawi initiated the conversion of
the native population into Islam. Subsequent trade between Malays also helped
establish the Islamic faith.
Starting in 1457, the introduction of Islam led to the creation of many
sultanates. This included the sultanates of Buayan, Maguindanao and Sulu, which
is considered the largest and longest-lasting Muslim state in the country until
its annexation into the Philippines in 1898.
Many of the inhabitants of the pre-Hispanic Philippines are said to be Muslims.
Rajah Sulayman, a chieftain of Manila at the time of the Spanish conquest, is
An 1858 German map of the Far East showing the limits of "Spanish Possessions" (Spanische
Besitzungen) in the Philippines.The Spanish arrived in 1565. This caused most of
the Philippines to end up under the Spanish rule. The sultanates, however,
maintained their independence, which enabled them to develop their own culture
With the colonial intentions, the Spanish held incursions within Moro territory.
They also began erecting military stations and garrisons with pockets of
civilian settlements. The most notable of these are Zamboanga and Cotabato.
Feeling threathened by these actions, Moros decided to challenge Spanish
authority. They began conducting raids on Christian coastal towns.
Bankruptcy due to the ongoing raids caused the Spanish crown to recognize Moro
sovereignty. However, only the Sultanate of Sulu benefited since it was the only
sultanate left standing.
After independence, the Moros were
marginalized in the Philippine nation-state. This coupled with Christian
settlement in traditionally Muslim regions, gave rise to armed secession
Controversial government policies
Please help improve this article by adding
citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and
removed. (April 2007)
The government policies instituted immediately after independence threatened the
The creation of the now abolished the Bureau for Non-Christian Tribes and the
encouragement of migration by non-Muslim Filipinos, led to the settlement of
hundreds of thousands of Visayan, Tagalog, Ilocano, and others inside the
Bangsamoro provinces in the 1950s. Their influx inflamed Moro hostility.
The problem began when Christian migrants complained that the ownership of the
land which they bought was not recognized by the Moros. Moros claimed that
Christians only entitle land through government agencies, which were unknown and
therefore unrecognized by the Moros. Another contributing factor was the public
school system, which was regarded by most Moros as an agency for the propagation
of Christian teachings.
Divisions along clans are existent among
Moros since the 1960s. Many young Moros, dissatisfied with the old system, have
asserted that datu and sultans were unnecessary in the modern Moro society.
Among themselves, these young reformers are divided between the moderates, those
who work within the system, and the militants, those who engage in
Moro reformers, on the other hand, have achieved to establish unity within the
community through religious adherence. This bond is strengthened by the
continued expansion of Christians and by the prolonged presence of army troops
Struggle for independence
The struggle has been in existence for
centuries, starting from the struggle against the Spanish up to the Moro
rebellion in the American period until the current Islamic Insurgency in the
The history of the Islamic Insurgency in the Philippines began shortly after
independence. The Philippine government envisioned a united country in which
Christians and Muslims would be assimilated into the dominant culture. This
vision, however, was generally rejected by Muslims, who feared that it was just
a euphemistic equivalent of assimilation. Because of this, the government
realised that there was a need for a specialized agency to deal with the Muslim
community so they set up the Commission for National Integration in 1957, which
was later replaced by the Office of Muslim Affairs and Cultural Communities.
Concessions were made to Moros after the creation of these agencies, with Moros
receiving exemptions from national laws prohibiting polygamy and divorce. In
1977, the government attempted move a step further by harmonizing Muslim
customary law with the national law.
Unfortunately, most of these achievements were superficial. The Moros,
dissatisfied with the government, established the Moro National Liberation Front
led by Nur Misuari with the intention of creating their own homeland. This
initiated the Islamic Insurgency in the Philippines in the late 1960s, which is
still ongoing up to the present and has since created a fracture between Muslims
By the 1970s, a Christian terrorist organization called the Ilagas began
operating in Cotabato. In retaliation, Muslim armed bands, like the Blackshirts
of Cotabato and the Barracudas of Lanao began to appear and fight the Ilagas.
The Armed Forces of the Philippines were deployed to install peace, however
their presence only created more violence.
In 1981, internal divisions within the MNLF caused the establishment of a
conservative organization called the MILF. The group proved to be more effective
than the MNLF in continuing the insurgency.
After the 1986 EDSA Revolution, President
Corazon Aquino decided to reach out to the Moro community.In the year 1987,
peace talks with the MNLF began with the intention of establishing an
auotonomous region for Moros. On August 1, 1989, through Republic Act No. 6734,
otherwise known as the Organic Act, a plebiscite was held in the provinces
within the Bangsamoro. This was to determine if the residents would want to be
part of an Autonomous Moro Region. This led to the creation of the Autonomous
Region in Muslim Mindanao.
Currently, the Philippines is under
threat due to the presence of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (the breakaway
faction of the MNLF), the Abu Sayyaf (an offshoot of the terror groups), and by
Jemaah Islamiyah. While the government is currently under peace talks with both
the MILF and the MNLF, the violence is still far from over.
MILF boycotted the original referendum spawned by the Organic Act referendum
process, and continued the armed struggle through the 90s and into the 21st
century. However, it remains a partner to the stumbling peace process in the
south, with the Philippines unwilling to brand MILF a "terrorist" group lest the
separatists be driven away from the negotiating table.
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
The Autonomous Region
in Muslim Mindanao (abbreviated ARMM) is the region of the Philippines that is
composed of all the Philippines' predominantly Muslim provinces, namely: Basilan
(except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, and the
Philippines' only predominantly Muslim city, the Islamic City of Marawi. It is
the only region that has its own government. The regional capital is at Cotabato
City, although this city is outside of its jurisdiction. The ARMM previously
included the province of Shariff Kabunsuan until July 16, 2008, when Shariff
Kabunsuan ceased to exist as a province after the Supreme Court in Sema v.
Comelec declared unconstitutional the "Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act 201", which
On July 18, 2008, Hermogenes Esperon, "peace advisor" to Philippine President
Gloria Arroyo, announced a further expansion of the ARMM in line with an
agreement reached between the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic
Liberation Front. The deal, concluded after nearly six years of dialogue, gives
the ARMM control of an additional 712 villages on the island of Mindanao, as
well as far-reaching political and economic powers. Negotiations to finalize the
Massive protests, however, have greeted the move of the GRP and MILF panels in
signing a Memorandum of Agreement on Ancestral Domain as a majority of the Local
Government Units where these Barangays are connected have already opted not to
join the ARMM in two instances, 1989 and 2001.
The region is divided into two geographical areas – the Mindanao mainland and
the Sulu Archipelago. Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao and Shariff Kabunsuan are
situated in the Mindanao mainland, while Basilan, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi are located
within the Sulu Archipelago. ARMM covers a total of 12,288 km².
For the most part of the Philippines' history, the region and most of Mindanao
has been a separate territory, which enabled it to develop its own culture and
identity. The region has been the traditional homeland of Muslim Filipinos since
the 15th century, even before the arrival of the Spanish who colonized most of
the Philippines beginning 1565. Arab missionaries arrived in Tawi-Tawi in 1380
and started the conversion of the native population into Islam. In 1457, the
Sultanate of Sulu was founded and not long after were the sultanates of
Maguindanao and Buayan established. At the time when most of the Philippines was
under Spanish rule, these sultanates maintained their independence and regularly
challenged Spanish domination of the Philippines by conducting raids on Spanish
coastal towns in the north and repulsing repeated Spanish incursions in their
territory. It was not until the last quarter of the 19th century that the
Sultanate of Sulu formally recognized Spanish sovereignty, however these areas
remained loosely controlled by the Spanish as sovereignty was only limited to
military stations and garrisons and pockets of civilian settlements in Zamboanga
and Cotabato, until they had to abandon the region as a consequence of their
defeat in the Spanish-American War.
In 1942, during the early stages of Pacific War (a theater of the Second World
War, troops of the Japanese Imperial Forces invaded and overran Mindanao and the
ARMM. 3 years later, in 1945, United States and Filipino troops landed in
Mindanao, and, with the help of local Filipino guerillas, ultimately defeated
the Japanese forces occupying the region.
1970s escalating hostilities between government forces and the MNLF prompted
Ferdinand Marcos to issue a proclamation forming an Autonomous Region in the
Southern Philippines, which was however, turned down by a plebiscite. In 1979,
Batas Pambansa No. 20 created the Regional Autonomous Government in Western and
Central Mindanao regions.
Establishment of the ARMM
The Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao region was first created on August 1,
1989 through Republic Act No. 6734 otherwise known as the Organic Act in
pursuance with a constitutional mandate to provide for an autonomous area in
Muslim Mindanao. A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato,
Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South
Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del
Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan,
Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa and Zamboanga to determine if the residents
would want to be part of the ARMM.
Of the areas where the plebiscites were held only Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao,
Sulu and Tawi-Tawi voted favorably for inclusion in the new autonomous region.
The ARMM was officially inaugurated on November 6, 1990 in Cotabato City, which
was designated as its provisional capital.
In 2001 a new law, RA 9054, was passed for the expansion of the ARMM to include
the areas which initially rejected inclusion and the provinces which were carved
from them, however only Marawi City and Basilan with the exception of Isabela
City opted to be integrated in the region.
RA 9054 lapsed into law, without the signature of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.
In 2006, a new province was carved out of Maguindanao: Shariff Kabunsuan, the
6th province of ARMM, joining Maguindanao, Lanao del Sur, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and
Basilan. In July 2008, however, Sema v. Comelec voided the creation of Shariff
Kabunsuan. The Supreme Court of the Philippines declared unconstitutional a
section in RA 9054 which granted the ARMM Regional Assembly the power to create
provinces and cities. The Comelec ruled that the Supreme Court’s ruling has no
effect on the ARMM elections as the decision is not yet final.
ARMM Organizational Structure
The region is headed by a Regional Governor. The Regional Governor and Regional
Vice Governor are elected directly like regular local executives. Regional
ordinances are created by the Regional Assembly, composed of Assemblymen, also
elected by direct vote. Regional elections are usually held one year after
general elections (national and local) depending on what legislation from the
Philippine Congress. Regional officials have a fixed term of three years, which
can be extended by an act of Congress.
The Regional Governor is the chief executive of the regional government, and is
assisted by a cabinet not exceeding 10 members. He appoints the members of the
cabinet, subject to confirmation by the Regional Legislative Assembly. He has
control of all the regional executive commissions, agencies, boards, bureaus and
The executive council advises the Regional Governor on matters of governance of
the autonomous region. It is composed of the regional governor, 1 regional vice
governor, and 3 deputy regional governors (each representing the Christians, the
Muslims, and the indigenous cultural communities). The regional governor and
regional vice governor have a 3-year term, maximum of 3 terms; deputies' terms
are co-terminus with the term of the regional governor who appointed them.
The ARMM has a unicameral Regional Legislative Assembly headed by a Speaker. It
is composed of three members for every congressional district. The current
membership is 24, where 6 are from Lanao del Sur including Marawi City, 6 from
Maguindanao, 6 from Sulu, 3 from Basilan and 3 from Tawi-Tawi.
The Regional Legislative Assembly is the legislative branch of the ARMM
government. The regular members (3 members/district) and sectoral
representatives, have 3-year terms; maximum of 3 consecutive terms. It exercises
legislative power in the autonomous region, except on the following matters:
foreign affairs, national defense and security, postal service, coinage and
fiscal and monetary policies, administration of justice, quarantine, customs and
tariff, citizenship, naturalization, immigration and deportation, general
auditing, national elections, maritime, land and air transportation,
communications, patents, trademarks, trade names and copyrights, foreign trade,
and may legislate on matters covered by the Shari’ah , the law governing
ARMM powers and basic principles
RA 9054 provides that ARMM "shall remain an integral and inseparable part of the
national territory of the Republic." The President exercises general supervision
over the Regional Governor. The Regional Government has the power to create its
own sources of revenues and to levy taxes, fees, and charges, subject to
Constitutional provisions and the provisions of RA 9054. The Shariah applies
only to Muslims; its applications are limited by pertinent constitutional
provisions (prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment).
The region is one of the most impoverished areas in the Philippines. It has a
per capita gross regional domestic product of only PhP3,433 in 2005, 75.8
percent lower than the national average of PhP14,186. It is the lowest among the
Philippines' 17 regions, the second lowest region has a per capita income almost
double the ARMM's. ARMM has a population of 4.1 million based on the 2007
census. It is the country's poorest region, where average annual income was just
89,000 pesos ($ 2,025) in 2006, less than 1/3 of Manila level.
Poverty incidence in the region is a high 45.4 percent in 2003, almost twice the
national average of 24.4 percent. Significant progress has been made in reducing
poverty in the region, which was reduced by 10.5 percent from the 2000 figure,
only the Caraga region has a higher poverty incidence in 2003. Lanao del Sur
reduced its povery incidence by as much as 26.9 percent, placing itself as the
12th most successful province in poverty reduction. Tawi-Tawi and Sulu have
reduced their figures by 18 and 17.6 percent, respectively. In 2000, all the
four provinces of the ARMM were among the 10 poorest in the Philippines. By
2003, Lanao del Sur, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi were out of the bottom 10, leaving only
Maguindanao, which remains to be the second poorest or the second with the
highest incidence of poverty among the Philippines' provinces.
Despite its "autonomous" nature, the ARMM receives approximately 98% of its
operating revenue from the National Government of the Philippines, and has yet
to create significant, viable sources of additional revenue. Perhaps for this
reason, the per capita spending on such vital services as education and
infrastructure are among the lowest in the Philippines, and the five provinces
of the ARMM continue to be ranked consistently on the lower rungs of economic
development within the country. The per student expenditure on education, for
example, is less than $100, with the result that students within ARMM schools
generally score poorly, in comparison with other provinces, on standardized
achievement tests administered throughout the country.
ARMM is one of the country's top producers of fish and marine resources,
particularly seaweed, which is used in some toothpastes, cosmetics and paints.
It has large mineral deposits, including copper and gold.
The native Maguindanaon and other native Muslim/non-Muslim groups have a culture
that revolves around kulintang music, a specific type of gong music, found among
both Muslim and non-Muslim groups of the Southern Philippines.
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao - Official Website
Bureau of Public Information - ARMM -
Latest News & Events in ARMM
Mindanao Mosque Philippines
Full view of the mosque in of Makhdum, Tubig
Indangan, Simunul Island, Tawi-Tawi, the Philippines
Probably the biggest mosque in Sibutu is the one in Tandubanak. Sporting a
pink and green motif, it stands proudly along the narrow and singular road
that bisects the island. Without any wide angle lens, it is difficult to
capture the full breadth of the beautiful mosque so the next best
alternative is to show how stately it soars above the wooden houses of
stilts that are typical of Tawi-Tawi.
Masjid Haji Imam, Sitangkai, Tawi-Tawi, the Philippines. This mosque is in
the small island of Sitangkai. Practically no one lives in the island which
is occupied by a military detachment, this mosque, some schools, a cemetery
and a few houses. The rest of the 30,000 people or so live around the island
in houses on stilts.
Islamic Mosque - Davao City, Philippines
Mosque in Zamboanga, Philippines
FURQAN ISLAMIC ASSOCIATION, INC., Manila
URL: www.afiainc.org Phone: +966 (1) 4039060
Studies,Call and Guidance, ISCAG, Manila
Masjid, Manila, philippine
of the Islamic Studies, Manila
URL: http://www.upd.edu.ph/~iis/ Phone: 63-2-9298286
Information Center, Manila
URL: www.angislam.org Phone: +63-2-4041619
Educational Center inc., Baguio City
General Hospital, Marawi City, philippine
Islamic Jama Inc., Kalibo, Aklan
URL: www.afiainc.org Phone: +63.36.268.8730
Mosque Inc., Manila Bay, Philippines
Extension Masjid, Iligan City, Iligan City
Diamond Mosque, Cagayan De Oro City
Abdulbahir Harid mosque purok islam, General Santos City
Islamic Jama Inc., Kalibo
Mosque Inc., Manila Bay
Hedayah Mosque, Botolan
MOSQUE, Pagadian City
Village mosque, Zamboanga City
Al-Khairiah Mosque, Cebu City
MOSQUE, Rosario Cavite
Bangladesh Masjid, Subic Bay
GRAND MOSQUE, Isabela
Islamic Foundation, Naga City
SACAYO ISLAMIC CENTER, Marawi City
MUSLIM CENTER, San Fernando
AL-DHIKR ISLAMIC CALL AND GUIDANCE CENTER, Bacalod
Arqam Mosque, Baguio City
Islamic Center, Bayang
MOSQUE, Basilan City
Mosque, Manila International
Greenhills Masjed, SAN JUAN CITY
islamic propagation, Guimaras Island
ABBAS ISLAMIC CENTER, Caloocan City
Act of Bangsamoro for Development in Mindanao, Inc., Cotabato City
DAWAH COUNCIL OF THE PHILIPPINES, Manila
Information Center, Metro Manila
Society of Bacolod City (ISBAC), Bacolod City
Studies Call & Guidance PHILIPPINES, Bulacan
Studies,Call and Guidance, ISCAG, Manila
Mindanao al-Islami, Marawi City
moalafate kolobohom for da'wah and guidance, Iloilo City
Grand Mosque, Koronadal Proper
Norte Central Mosque-Islamic League of Momungan, Balo-i
Macca Mosque, Marawi City
Islamic Center, Davao City
Dawah Al Islamie, NAGA
As-sabireen Care Center for new Muslim , Caloocan City
Al-Jannah, Zamboanga City
al-mubarakat jamaat organization, Isabela
Darul Islam, Bongao Poblacion
Darussalam, Lucena City
lukasadatu jama'ah, Marawi City
Masjid, Manila City
Islamic Center, Marawi City
Omar Dianalan Mosque, Marawi
Omar Dianalan Mosque 2, Iligan City
Balik Islam Jumaah Association, Inc, Surigao Del Sur
Egyption communty mosqe, Manila
Green Mosque, Sampaloc, Manila
Islamic Studies, Call & Guidance, Kalibo Town
INC.-IBAJAY CHAPTER, Ibajay
ISLAMIC ASSOCIATION, INC., Manila
Dawa'h Association, Lucena City
INC., Pagadian City
ASSOCIATION FOR ISLAMIC DEVELOPMENT (AID) INC., Pagadian Anchorage
Islam Association of Surigao del Sur, Inc., Tandag
youth islamic organization, Balindong
Bangsamoro Information Technology Society, Inc., Cotabato City
Ulama Supreme Council, Basilan City
Muslim-Islamic Information & Dawah Center, Inc., Legazpi City
Muslims Islamic Information and Dawah Center, Daraga
Islamic Credence Society, Baguio City
Muslim Center, Inc., Caloocan City
Center for New Muslims, General Santos City
for Islamic Awareness, Manila
for Islamic Research and Information, Manila
for Muslim Youth Studies, Inc. (CMYS), Cotabato City
to Islam Society of the Philippines, Inc. - Pangasinan Chapter, Alaminos City
to Islam Society of the Philippines-Pangasinan Chapter, Alaminos
AMANAH CHILDRENS VILLAGE INC, Silang
Doctors college Muslim Student Organizatioln, Davao City
ROYAL SULTANATE LEAGUE OF THE PHILIPPINES (ROSULPHIL), Manila
Federation of Muslim Student Associations (FMSA), Zamboanga City
Filipino Muslim Islamic Da'wah Center, Guidance & Foundation Inc., Quezon City
Foundation Inc., Manila
Import Export Traders Multi-Purpose Cooperative, Iligan City
CIVIL RIGHTS ASSISTANCE, Mabatang River
Da`wah Council of the Philippines - Northern Luzon, Alaminos
Information Center, Manila
Propagation and Research Center Cebu Inc. - IPRCCI, Cebu City
Wisdom Worldwide, Manila
Ittihadush Shabab Almuslimin, Inc., Sulu
Moalafate Kolobohom for Dawah & Guidance, Inc., Kalibo Town
DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION PHILIPPINES,INC, Manila
Muslim Professionals and Traders Association, Koronadal Proper
al-Shabab al-muslim fil philippines, Marawi City
Taqwa, Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia-Manila, Makati
Business Forum (MBF), Quirino
BUSINESSMEN AND PROFESSIONALS CLUB OF THE PHILIPPINES, INC., Manila
GROUP IN ROSARIO Cavite, Rosario, Cavite
STUDENT COUNCIL, INCORPORATED, Manila
Youth Brotherhood, Cotabato City
Sharing Skills for Peace and Development Inc, Iligan
MUSLIM YOUTH, Naga City
Islamic Information, Naga City
Mindanao Muslim Assembly, Incorporated, Cagayan De Oro City
Masjid, Manila City
Islamic Center, Marawi City
Omar Dianalan Mosque, Marawi
Omar Dianalan Mosque 2, Iligan City
Balik Islam Jumaah Association, Inc, Surigao Del Sur
Egyption communty mosqe, Manila
Green Mosque, Sampaloc, Manila
Islamic Studies, Call & Guidance, Kalibo Town
JAHRA ISLAMIC LEARNING CENTER, Zamboanga City
Educational Center inc., Baguio City
for Islamic Education Research and Information, Inc., Manila
Uloom Manila, Manila
Integrated school, Marawi City
of Asian and Islamic Studies, Zamboanga
of Bangsamoro Studies, Cotabato City
of the Islamic Studies, Manila
Kidie Learning Center, Manila City
Studies Department, Mindanao State University, General Santos City
da'wa al islamiya, Lamitan
Luzon Ashimali, Baguio City
Eastern Academy, Butig
DAROOL ULOOM BLUE MOSQUE, TAGUIG
Marbel Littarbiyatil Islamiyyah, Koronadal Proper
schools in Manila Pilippines, Manila
Islamic Institute, Zamboanga City
بوتيغ العربى الإسلامى, Butig
International School for Higher Education Studies (WISHES), Marawi City
THABIT QURANIC MEMORIZATION CENTER, Marawi City
Muslim Owned Business
Multi-purpose cooperative, San Juan
Al-Hadiyah Gen. Merchandise Centre, Isulan
Tower Hotel & Restaurant, Zamboanga City
mall muslim traders association, Muntinglupa
Southern Deli, San Juan
Hapit-Anay Halal Eatery, Kalibo Town
General Hospital, Marawi City
Persian Kebab, Manila
June-Nairah Halal Food Restaurant, Manila
General Merchandizing, Alaminos
Halal Cuisine, Manila
Neurosurgery Clinic, NAGA
Travel Consultancy Services, Quezon City
Snack Center, Manila
Palawan Muslim Chamber Of Commerce I.N.C., Palawan
TagsdotCom Internet and Games, Iligan City
Fresh Halal, Manila
Agro-Systems and Services, Davao City
Islam in Philippines (
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_the_Philippines , September, 2008).
Info please (
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107887.html, September, 2008).
Islam Finder (
http://www.islamicfinder.org/cityPrayerNew.php?country=philippines , September,
Anonymous, Documents from Representatives of Islamic Organizations in