ISLAM and MUSLIMS IN  PHILIPPINES

      

General Information

Republic of the Philippines

Land area: 115,124 sq mi (298,171 sq km); total area: 115,830 sq mi (300,000 sq km)

Population (2007 est.): 91,077,287

Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Manila, 10,677,000 (metro. area), 1,581,082 (city proper)

Other large cities: Quezon City (2000 est.), 1,669,776 (part of Manila metro. area); Cebu (2003 est.), 761,900

Monetary unit: Peso

Languages: Filipino (based on Tagalog), English (both official); eight major dialects: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense

Ethnicity/race: Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000)

Religions: Roman Catholic 81%, Evangelical 3%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 5%, Islam 5% (2000)

Literacy rate: 96% (2003 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2007 est.): $299.6 billion; per capita $3,400. Real growth rate: 7.3%. Inflation: 2.8%.

The Philippine Islands are an archipelago of over 7,000 islands lying about 500 mi (805 km) off the southeast coast of Asia. The overall land area is comparable to that of Arizona. Only about 7% of the islands are larger than one square mile, and only one-third have names. The largest are Luzon in the north (40,420 sq mi; 104,687 sq km), Mindanao in the south (36,537 sq mi; 94,631 sq km), and Samar (5,124 sq mi; 13,271 sq km). The islands are of volcanic origin, with the larger ones crossed by mountain ranges. The highest peak is Mount Apo (9,690 ft; 2,954 m) on Mindanao.

The Philippines' aboriginal inhabitants arrived from the Asian mainland around 25,000 B.C. They were followed by waves of Indonesian and Malayan settlers from 3000 B.C. onward. By the 14th century A.D., extensive trade was being conducted with India, Indonesia, China, and Japan.

Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain, explored the Philippines in 1521. Twenty-one years later, a Spanish exploration party named the group of islands in honor of Prince Philip, who was later to become Philip II of Spain. Spain retained possession of the islands for the next 350 years.

The Philippines were ceded to the U.S. in 1899 by the Treaty of Paris after the Spanish-American War. Meanwhile, the Filipinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, had declared their independence. They initiated guerrilla warfare against U.S. troops that persisted until Aguinaldo's capture in 1901. By 1902, peace was established except among the Islamic Moros on the southern island of Mindanao.

The first U.S. civilian governor-general was William Howard Taft (1901–1904). The Jones Law (1916) established a Philippine legislature composed of an elective Senate and House of Representatives. The Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934) provided for a transitional period until 1946, at which time the Philippines would become completely independent. Under a constitution approved by the people of the Philippines in 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines came into being with Manuel Quezon y Molina as president.

On Dec. 8, 1941, the islands were invaded by Japanese troops. Following the fall of Gen. Douglas MacArthur's forces at Bataan and Corregidor, Quezon instituted a government-in-exile that he headed until his death in 1944. He was succeeded by Vice President Sergio Osmeña. U.S. forces under MacArthur reinvaded the Philippines in Oct. 1944 and, after the liberation of Manila in Feb. 1945, Osmeña reestablished the government.

The Philippines achieved full independence on July 4, 1946. Manuel A. Roxas y Acuña was elected its first president, succeeded by Elpidio Quirino (1948–1953), Ramón Magsaysay (1953–1957), Carlos P. García (1957–1961), Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965), and Ferdinand E. Marcos (1965–1986).

Islamic History and Muslims

Islam is one of the oldest organized religions to be established in the Philippines. Islam reached the islands in the 14th century with the arrival of Indian, Malay and Javanese merchants, and Arab missionaries from various sultanates in the Malay Archipelago, although the spread of Islam in the Philippines is due to the strength of Muslim India. India brought Islam to Southeast Asia, specifically Malaysia and Indonesia, and in turn the latter two brought Islam to the Philippines.

In 1380, Karim ul' Makhdum, the first Islamic missionary to reach the Sulu Archipelago and Jolo, brought Islam to what is now the Philippines. The Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque was the first mosque established in the Philippines on Simunul. Subsequent visits by Arab Muslim missionaries from the now Islamicized Malaysia and Indonesia, helped strengthen the Islamic faith in the Philippines, mostly in the south but as far north as Manila. Vast sultanates were established, comprised of the Sultanate of Maguindanao and the Sultanate of Sulu. Since the first people who established themselves as sultans in various parts of the Malay Archipelago—Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines—were usually of Arab descent, most people of royal lineage claim Arab descent, some going as far as claiming descent from the Prophet Muhammad himself.

The world resurgence of Islam after World War II gave Muslims in the Philippines a stronger sense of unity as a religious community than they had in the past. Since the early 1970s, the number of Muslim teachers visiting the country and Filipino Muslims traveling abroad—either on the Hajj or on scholarships—has increased to unprecedented levels. As a result, Muslims have built many new mosques and religious schools, where students (male and female) learn the basic rituals and principles of Islam and learn to read the Qur'an in Arabic. A number of Muslim institutions of higher learning, such as the Jamiatul Philippine al-Islamia in Marawi, also offer advanced courses in Islamic studies.

The periods following the demise of the Prophet Muhammad - led to the expansion of Islam to Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia. In Southeast Asia, Islam was promulgated by three methods: by Muslim traders in the course of peaceful trade; by preachers and holy men who set out from India and Arabia specifically to convert idolaters and animist and increase the knowledge of the faithful; and by war waged against heathen states.

Trading served as a strong factors in spreading Islam in Southeast Asia, with Muslim merchants interested not only in the commercial aspects of life, but in the spiritual as well, providing Islamic knowledge to the uniformed through religious missions.

It was in North Sumatra that the trade route from India and the west reached the archipelago, and Islam first obtained a firm footing in Southeast Asia. Malacca , the main trading center of the area in the 15th century, became the great stronghold of the faith, from where it spread out. In the 10th century, Islam's influence intensified and reached as far as ancient Malaysia. This in turn would affect its growth in what would become The Philippines.

The strength of the Sulu sultanate in the early 14th was enhanced by Malay leaders who helped the natives in political, economic, and religious developments. Among others, Rajah Baguinda, a Sumatrans prince, came to the Philippines in 1390 with a group of men, all learned in Islam. They settled in Buwansa, which became the first capital of the sultanate of Sulu, and Abubakhar his son-in-law became the first sultan.

The early missionaries who came to the Philippines were guided by Islamic principles of no religious compulsion, thus the gradual and liberal promulgation of Islam. Known as Mukhdumin, these missionaries did not mean to conquer the territories or exploit its inhabitants but to teach, and guide people to the right path.

Paramount among them was Rajah Baguinda, followed by his son-in-law Sharieful Hashim, who served as the first sultan of Sulu. Afterestablishing a community and assuming leadership doctrines on tawhid(Monotheism) to eradicate polytheism, animism and idolatry.

Islam gives the Philippines Muslim their life meaning and direction. The concept of monotheism does not only enlighten them on the absolute oneness of God, but emphasizes to them the quality of an Ummah(Islamic Nation) described by the Holy Qur'an, as a single nation (21:92) characterized by a fraternal bond binding all its members together. It accentuates the brotherhood of man and the kinship of Muslim. Their adherence to the Islamic faith changed the destiny of their fragmented society to a Bangsa Tungga (Single Nation), the Islamic Ummah. This Cesar Majul explains thus: "It becomes clearly demonstrated that what gave the Muslims in the Philippines their cohesion and sense of community was Islam. It was Islam that institutionalized their loyalty to their Sultans, gave them a system of writing, sanctioned their attempts to resist alien rule, and gave a religious character to their patriotism."

Two century before the coming of Western colonizers to the Philippines, the Muslim enjoyed full independence, and had a well-organized government, the sultanate, which attained various achievements at the height of its power. The sultan served as both political and religious leaders, protector and defender of Islam, following the Islamic political system of no separation between church and state. As a religious leader, the sultan was called Zillullah fil-ard, shadow of God in earth, based on the Islamic political point a view that man, particularly a leader, is the vice0regent of God.

With the coming of the Spaniards and the Americans, the Bangsa Islam declined. Both colonial powers incorporated the independent Bangsa Islam into the Philippines state, reducing the power of the sultan, especially during the American regime.

The Muslim courageously resisted the Spanish conquistadors, but it cost them in terms of socioeconomic development, which remained almost at zero level because of the constant wars. While the natives of the Visayas and Luzon easily succumbed to the Spaniards, the Muslim continued to defend their Bangsa, tau, iban, agama (Nation, People, and Religion).

Spain resorted to massive propaganda to win the war, one weapon of which was religious nationalism. Its religious introduced Christianity as the only true religion , with Islam therefore "a false religion". This outraged the Muslim, who became more determined to fight, thus the resistance in the name of jihad (holy war) with the battle cry: Kamatay sampay kamaharhikaan (Death until victory is Achieved).

Another type of propaganda the Spaniards used was name-calling. Instead of calling the Islamic people of Mindanao Muslims, they named them Moros, with negative connotations of being pirates, juramentados, repulsive, sinister, and the like.

Incredibly, Muslims in the Philippines intermittently apply the term Moro as the rallying point for unification of the different linguistic communities that profess Islam. The idea is to consolidate those different tribes into one body or nation that would formulate a common stand against any force that tried to subjugate and exploit their country, people, and natural resources.

From Spanish colonization up to the American regime and the present, the Moros have remained faithful to Islam. Whenever they feel that external presences and exploitation are hanging over their heads, their only alternative is to develop the internal factor, religious consciousness. Islam, which preaches Jihad when there is imminent danger of religious proselytization and colonization, has made them stand firm to defend their faith. This deepening Islamic awareness has become the mobilizing factor that fuses the different Moro tribes into bangsa tunggal (a single nation) as part of the Islamic universal concept of ummah Islamiah, the main tenet of which is the brotherhood of Muslim all over the world. Thus the problem of one Bangsa is the quandary of all the Ummah.

When other Muslim states come to their rescue, it is not a matter of intervention in sovereignty and territorial integrity, but a religious duty.

The Muslims in the Philippines can be key factors in the establishment of a cordial relationship, better understanding and an esprit de corps with the Muslim world. The Filipino Muslims' existence as part of the Muslim ummah is not in the context of a minority, but in that of a far reaching spread of citizenry who dwell in a single nation and have an unshakable affinity, the Islamic brotherhood (ukhywwah Islamayah), comparable to an edifice in which each part of the structure reinforces all others.

Islam is one of the oldest organized religions to be established in the Philippines. Its origins in the country may be dated back to as early as the 15th century, with the arrival of Arab and Malay muslim traders who converted some of the native inhabitants of the islands. Muslims in the country form 5 percent of the national population.

The Philippine territory was under Islamic rule when the Spaniards arrived and colonized it. Magellan was killed by a Muslim chieftain. Manila (May nilad )was originally Islamic until Miguel López de Legazpi conquered it. Intramoros means Among the moors. The Filipino word moro comes from the Spanish word for the inhabitants of Morroco. A tenacious Islamic legacy is the custom to circumsize('tuli'). When the Spaniards arrived, circumsicion was justified as being Christian. Being uncircumsized is considered shameful in Filipino society.

In the early 1990s, Filipino Muslims were firmly rooted in their Islamic faith. Every year many went on the hajj (pilgrimage) to the holy city of Mecca; on return men would be addressed by the honoritic "hajj" and women the honorific "hajji". In most Muslim communities, there was at least one mosque from which the muezzin called the faithful to prayer five times a day. Those who responded to the call to public prayer removed their shoes before entering the mosque, aligned themselves in straight rows before the minrab (niche), and offered prayers in the direction of Mecca. An imam, or prayer leader, led the recitation in Arabic verses from the Quran, following the practices of the Sunni sect of Islam common to most of the Muslim world. It was sometimes said that the Moros often neglected to perform the ritual prayer and did not strictly abide by the fast (no food or drink in daylight hours) during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim calendar, or perform the duty of almsgiving. They did, however, scrupulously observe other rituals and practices and celebrate great festivals of Islam such as the end of Ramadan; Muhammad's birthday; the night of his ascension to heaven; and the start of the Muslim New Year, the first day of the month of Muharram.

Islam in the Philippines has absorbed indigenous elements, much as has Catholicism. Moros thus make offerings to spirits (diwatas), malevolent or benign, believing that such spirits can and will have an effect on one's health, family, and crops. They also include pre-Islamic customs in ceremonies marking rites of passage--birth, marriage, and death. Moros share the essentials of Islam, but specific practices vary from one Moro group to another. Although Muslim Filipino women are required to stay at the back of the mosque for prayers (out of the sight of men), they are much freer in daily life than are women in many other Islamic societies.

Because of the world resurgence of Islam since World War II, Muslims in the Philippines have a stronger sense of their unity as a religious community than they had in the past. Since the early 1970s, more Muslim teachers have visited the nation and more Philippine Muslims have gone abroad--either on the hajj or on scholarships--to Islamic centers than ever before. They have returned revitalized in their faith and determined to strengthen the ties of their fellow Moros with the international Islamic community. As a result, Muslims have built many new mosques and religious schools, where students (male and female) learn the basic rituals and principles of Islam and learn to read the Quran in Arabic. A number of Muslim institutions of higher learning, such as the Jamiatul Philippine al-Islamia in Marawi, also offer advanced courses in Islamic studies.

Divisions along generational lines have emerged among Moros since the 1960s. Many young Muslims, dissatisfied with the old leaders, asserted that datu and sultans were unnecessary in modern Islamic society. Among themselves, these young reformers were divided between moderates, working within the system for their political goals, and militants, engaging in guerrilla-style warfare. To some degree, the government managed to isolate the militants, but Muslim reformers, whether moderates or militants, were united in their strong religious adherence. This bond was significant, because the Moros felt threatened by the continued expansion of Christians into southern Mindanao and by the prolonged presence of Philippine army troops in their homeland.

Muslims, about 5 percent of the total population, were the most significant minority in the Philippines. Although undifferentiated racially from other Filipinos, in the 1990s they remained outside the mainstream of national life, set apart by their religion and way of life. In the 1970s, in reaction to consolidation of central government power under martial law, which began in 1972, the Muslim Filipino, or Moro population increasingly identified with the worldwide Islamic community, particularly in Malaysia, Indonesia, Libya, and Middle Eastern countries. Longstanding economic grievances stemming from years of governmental neglect and from resentment of popular prejudice against them contributed to the roots of Muslim insurgency.

Moros were confined almost entirely to the southern part of the country--southern and western Mindanao, southern Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago. Ten subgroups could be identified on the basis of language. Three of these groups made up the great majority of Moros. They were the Maguindanaos of North Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and Maguindanao provinces; the Maranaos of the two Lanao provinces; and the Tausugs, principally from Jolo Island. Smaller groups were the Samals and Bajaus, principally of the Sulu Archipelago; the Yakans of Zamboanga del Sur Province; the Ilanons and Sangirs of Southern Mindanao Region; the Melabugnans of southern Palawan; and the Jama Mapuns of the tiny Cagayan Islands.

Muslim Filipinos traditionally have not been a closely knit or even allied group. They were fiercely proud of their separate identities, and conflict between them was endemic for centuries. In addition to being divided by different languages and political structures, the separate groups also differed in their degree of Islamic orthodoxy. For example, the Tausugs, the first group to adopt Islam, criticized the more recently Islamicized Yakan and Bajau peoples for being less zealous in observing Islamic tenets and practices. Internal differences among Moros in the 1980s, however, were outweighed by commonalities of historical experience vis-à-vis non-Muslims and by shared cultural, social, and legal traditions.

The traditional structure of Moro society focused on a sultan who was both a secular and a religious leader and whose authority was sanctioned by the Quran. The datu were communal leaders who measured power not by their holdings in landed wealth but by the numbers of their followers. In return for tribute and labor, the datu provided aid in emergencies and advocacy in disputes with followers of another chief. Thus, through his agama (court--actually an informal dispute-settling session), a datu became basic to the smooth function of Moro society. He was a powerful authority figure who might have as many as four wives and who might enslave other Muslims in raids on their villages or in debt bondage. He might also demand revenge (maratabat) for the death of a follower or upon injury to his pride or honor.

The datu continued to play a central role in Moro society in the 1980s. In many parts of Muslim Mindanao, they still administered the sharia (sacred Islamic law) through the agama. They could no longer expand their circle of followers by raiding other villages, but they achieved the same end by accumulating wealth and then using it to provide aid, employment, and protection for less fortunate neighbors. Datu support was essential for government programs in a Muslim barangay. Although a datu in modern times rarely had more than one wife, polygamy was permitted so long as his wealth was sufficient to provide for more than one. Moro society was still basically hierarchical and familial, at least in rural areas.

The national government policies instituted immediately after independence in 1946 abolished the Bureau for Non-Christian Tribes used by the United States to deal with minorities and encouraged migration of Filipinos from densely settled areas such as Central Luzon to the "open" frontier of Mindanao. By the l950s, hundreds of thousands of Ilongos, Ilocanos, Tagalogs, and others were settling in North Cotabato and South Cotabato and Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur provinces, where their influx inflamed Moro hostility. The crux of the problem lay in land disputes. Christian migrants to the Cotabatos, for example, complained that they bought land from one Muslim only to have his relatives refuse to recognize the sale and demand more money. Muslims claimed that Christians would title land through government agencies unknown to Muslim residents, for whom land titling was a new institution. Distrust and resentment spread to the public school system, regarded by most Muslims as an agency for the propagation of Christian teachings. By 1970, a terrorist organization of Christians called the Ilagas (Rats) began operating in the Cotabatos, and Muslim armed bands, called Blackshirts, appeared in response. The same thing happened in the Lanaos, where the Muslim Barracudas began fighting the Ilagas. Philippine army troops sent in to restore peace and order were accused by Muslims of siding with the Christians. When martial law was declared in 1972, Muslim Mindanao was in turmoil.

The Philippine government discovered shortly after independence that there was a need for some kind of specialized agency to deal with the Muslim minority and so set up the Commission for National Integration in 1957, which was later replaced by the Office of Muslim Affairs and Cultural Communities. Filipino nationalists envisioned a united country in which Christians and Muslims would be offered economic advantages and the Muslims would be assimilated into the dominant culture. They would simply be Filipinos who had their own mode of worship and who refused to eat pork. This vision, less than ideal to many Christians, was generally rejected by Muslims who feared that it was a euphemistic equivalent of assimilation. Concessions were made to Muslim religion and customs. Muslims were exempted from Philippine laws prohibiting polygamy and divorce, and in 1977 the government attempted to codify Muslim law on personal relationships and to harmonize Muslim customary law with Philippine law. A significant break from past practice was the 1990 establishment of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, which gave Muslims in the region control over some aspects of government, but not over national security and foreign affairs.

There were social factors in the early 1990s that militated against the cultural autonomy sought by Muslim leaders. Industrial development and increased migration outside the region brought new educational demands and new roles for women. These changes in turn led to greater assimilation and, in some cases, even intermarriage. Nevertheless, Muslims and Christians generally remained distinct societies often at odds with one another.

Bangsamoro

Bangsamoro is the name of the area claimed by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in the Philippines. The MILF seeks to establish an independent Islamic state in the southern Philippines. Bangsamoro covers the provinces of Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Cotabato, South Cotabato. Davao del Sur, Sarangani, Sultan Kudarat, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, Basilan, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi. It also includes the southern portion of the province of Palawan.

The term Bangsamoro also refers to the Filipino Muslim people, in general. These include the Tausug and the Maguindanaoans.

The term Bangsamoro comes from the Malay word bangsa, meaning nation or people, and the Spanish word moro, from the older Spanish word Moor, the Reconquista-period term for Arabs or Muslims.

Moro Rebellion

The Moro Rebellion was the second phase of the Philippine-American War, following the so-called Philippine Insurrection phase. After the capture of Philippine patriot Emilio Aguinaldo and the surrender of the majority of Philippine forces on Luzon, many regions remained beyond the control of the American forces. In spite of the announcement of President Theodore Roosevelt in 1902 that the Philippines had been subdued, sporadic fighting continued in many areas.

The southern area of the Philippine Islands continued to resist strenuously. With great difficulty, American forces gained control over the remainder of the Philippine Islands, particularly the moslem (Moro) island centered on Mindanao. The Moro Rebellion did not abate until 1913, when the American government promised the eventual independence of the country.

Modern Muslim inhabitants of the southern Philippines see the Moro Rebellion as one phase of a continuing struggle against outside influences, the Spanish, the Americans, and the central government of the Philippines.


Circumcision

Circumcision is practiced due to the influence of Islam. A strong Islamic legacy has been left behind in the Philippines in the custom to circumcise (pagtutuli or, simply tuli, in Filipino) young boys. (Note: Circumcision is not mentioned in the Koran, but is mentioned in Hadith and considered an important Sunnah.) When the Spaniards arrived, circumcision was justified as being Christian. To this day, being uncircumcised is stigmatized in Philippine society. Even to non-Muslim Filipinos, it is considered effeminate to be uncircumcised (Filipino: supot), and one isn't considered a "full man" unless he is circumcised.


Observance

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Every year, many Filipino Muslims go on a pilgrimage (hajj) to the holy city of Mecca; upon returning men are bestowed with the honorific title "hajji" and women the honorific "hajja". In most Muslim communities, there is at least one mosque from which the muezzin call the faithful to prayer five times a day. Those who respond to the call to public prayer follow Muslim custom in removing their shoes before entering the Mosque, aligning themselves in straight rows before the minbar (niche), and offering prayers in the direction of Mecca. An Imam, or prayer leader, leads the recitation in Arabic verses from the Qur'an, following the practices of the Sunni sect of Islam common to most of the world.

Moros, who comprise most of the Muslim population in Mindanao, are observant regarding performing the ritual prayer and have strictly abided by the fast (no food or drink in daylight hours) during Ramadan, or performed the duty of almsgiving. They also observe other rituals and practices and celebrate Islamic festivals such as the end of Ramadan (Eid ul-Fitr); Muhammad's birthday; the night of his ascension to heaven; and the start of the Muslim New Year, the first day of the month of Muharram.

Indigenization

Along with Catholicism, Islam in the Philippines has absorbed indigenous elements. Moros, in particular, make offerings to spirits (diwatas), malevolent or benign, believing that such spirits can and will have an effect on one's health, family, and crops.


Philippines - Muslim Filipinos

Filipino Muslims

Islam in the Philippines

Moro (ethnic group)

Mosques in the Philippines

Zaldy Ampatuan

Bojinka plot

Gracia Burnham

Isnilon Totoni Hapilon

Makhdum Karim

Maranao

Moro Islamic Liberation Front

Moro National Liberation Front

National Commission on Muslim Filipinos

Abu Sayyaf

Nur Misuari

Philippine Airlines Flight 434

2002 Zamboanga bombing

 

Moro

Bangsamoro territory under Moro control

The Moro are a multilingual ethnic group and the largest mainly non-Christian ethnic group in the Philippines, comprising about 5.25% of the total Philippine population as of 2005, making them the sixth largest ethnic group in the country. Their name originated from the Spanish word Moor, and they mostly live in a region dubbed as Bangsamoro in the southern Philippines. Due to migration, Moro communities have also begun to appear in major cities like Manila, Cebu and Baguio.

Background

Muslims and Christians have generally remained distinct societies. When the Spanish arrived in the 15th century, they successfully integrated the northern and middle regions of the current Philippines into their growing empire. However, the Muslim South long remained a site of resistance and violence. Consequently, it grew isolated from the Westernizing influences of Spanish rule, including education, trade, and economic development. When the Philippines were ceded to the United States by Spain following the Spanish-American War, the new American administration treated the restive South as a separate entity with a separate administration. As with the Spanish, the violence endemic to the region continued the trend of isolation, with the Moro regions receiving little benefit from the US government investment, including the Thomasite teachers, establishment of economic institutions, and infrastructure investment. Consequently, by the time of independence in 1945, the Moro regions remained vastly underdeveloped in comparison to the rest of the nation, with a population that was highly illiterate and poorly educated, with an economy dependant on subsistence farming. The cycle of violence, lack of investment, and more violence has plagued the region ever since. The migration of wealthy, educated Christian Malays, mainly Cebuanos from the Visayas, into traditionally Moro areas contributed to the endemic resentment of the Moros to the Christian Malay majority (who today make up majorities in many historically Moro regions), and acted as an impetus for calls for an independent Moro homeland known as Bangsamoro.

A significant change of government policy led to the 1990 creation of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, which gave Moros in the region control over certain aspects of government, but not their security and foreign affairs. Social factors in the early 1990s contributed against the political autonomy sought by Muslim leaders. Industrial development and increased migration outside the region brought new educational demands and new roles for women. These changes in turn led to greater assimilation and, including intermarriage.

Society

The "homeland" of the Moro is Bangsamoro, the word comes from the Malay word bangsa, meaning nation or people, and the word Moro. Bangsamoro covers the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, Sarangani, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga Sibugay. It also includes the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, and Zamboanga.


Government

The concept of the sultan was brought to the Philippines through Islamization. The presence of Islam, began the creation of sultanates like that of Magindanao and othat of Sulu. Meanwhile, the datu was the traditional ruler in Filipino societies. Their function was similar to the duke. In return for tribute and labor, the datu provides aid in emergencies and mediates disputes with other communities through the agamat. They may also have four wives if they wish. In the past, datus have led raids on other villages in order to seek revenge ('maratabat) for the death of a follower or the injury of his honor.

Datus currently act as the community leaders in Moro societies and administer the Sharia (Muslim law) through the agama. The datu essentially heads government programs in Moro communities, which tend to be hierarchical in rural areas.

Modern

The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) is headed by a Regional Governor. The Regional Governor, along with the Regional-Vice Governor, act as the executive branch.

The ARMM has a unicameral Regional Assembly headed by a Speaker. This acts as the legislative branch for the region and is responsible for regional ordinances. It is composed of three members for every congressional district. The current membership is twenty-four.

Lifestyle

Islam has been the most dominant influence on the Moro culture. Islamic polygamous marriages are approved by public authorities while polygamy is considered illegal for non-Muslim citizens. Pork is not eaten since it considered taboo under the Qu'ran. Another practice is Islamic circumcision (tuli). However, circumcision is also very common practice among non-Muslim Filipino males.


Subgroups

Dominant Moro subgroups.There are at least ten ethnic subgroups within the Moro ethnic group, all descended from the same prehistoric Austronesian migrations from Taiwan that populated the rest of the Philippines and Maritime Southeast Asia. These could be identified on the basis of language. Three of these groups make up the majority of the Moro. They are the Maguindanaons of North Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and Maguindanao provinces; the Maranao of the two Lanao provinces; and the Tausug of the Sulu Archipelago. Smaller groups include the Banguingui, Samal and the Bajau of the Sulu Archipelago; the Yakan of Basilan and Zamboanga del Sur; the Illanun and Sangir of Davao; the Melabugnans of southern Palawan; and the Jama Mapuns of Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi Island.

Moros are not closely knit and they lack solidarity. Each group is proud of their culture, identity and language, including their variation of Islam. Endemic conflict has persisted for centuries. Internal differences among the Moros existed in the 1980s, however, these were outweighed by cultural, social, and traditional aspects as well as shared historical experiences vis-à-vis non-Muslims.


History

Pre-Hispanic era

During 1380, the arrival of Arab missionaries, including Makhdum Karim, in Tawi-Tawi initiated the conversion of the native population into Islam. Subsequent trade between Malays also helped establish the Islamic faith.

Starting in 1457, the introduction of Islam led to the creation of many sultanates. This included the sultanates of Buayan, Maguindanao and Sulu, which is considered the largest and longest-lasting Muslim state in the country until its annexation into the Philippines in 1898.

Many of the inhabitants of the pre-Hispanic Philippines are said to be Muslims. Rajah Sulayman, a chieftain of Manila at the time of the Spanish conquest, is one example.


Hispanic era

An 1858 German map of the Far East showing the limits of "Spanish Possessions" (Spanische Besitzungen) in the Philippines.The Spanish arrived in 1565. This caused most of the Philippines to end up under the Spanish rule. The sultanates, however, maintained their independence, which enabled them to develop their own culture and identity.

With the colonial intentions, the Spanish held incursions within Moro territory. They also began erecting military stations and garrisons with pockets of civilian settlements. The most notable of these are Zamboanga and Cotabato.

Feeling threathened by these actions, Moros decided to challenge Spanish authority. They began conducting raids on Christian coastal towns.

Bankruptcy due to the ongoing raids caused the Spanish crown to recognize Moro sovereignty. However, only the Sultanate of Sulu benefited since it was the only sultanate left standing.


American period
Post-Philippine Independence

After independence, the Moros were marginalized in the Philippine nation-state. This coupled with Christian settlement in traditionally Muslim regions, gave rise to armed secession movements.


Controversial government policies

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The government policies instituted immediately after independence threatened the Moro society.

The creation of the now abolished the Bureau for Non-Christian Tribes and the encouragement of migration by non-Muslim Filipinos, led to the settlement of hundreds of thousands of Visayan, Tagalog, Ilocano, and others inside the Bangsamoro provinces in the 1950s. Their influx inflamed Moro hostility.

The problem began when Christian migrants complained that the ownership of the land which they bought was not recognized by the Moros. Moros claimed that Christians only entitle land through government agencies, which were unknown and therefore unrecognized by the Moros. Another contributing factor was the public school system, which was regarded by most Moros as an agency for the propagation of Christian teachings.

 Internal divisions

Divisions along clans are existent among Moros since the 1960s. Many young Moros, dissatisfied with the old system, have asserted that datu and sultans were unnecessary in the modern Moro society. Among themselves, these young reformers are divided between the moderates, those who work within the system, and the militants, those who engage in guerrilla-style warfare.

Moro reformers, on the other hand, have achieved to establish unity within the community through religious adherence. This bond is strengthened by the continued expansion of Christians and by the prolonged presence of army troops within Bangsamoro.

 Struggle for independence

The struggle has been in existence for centuries, starting from the struggle against the Spanish up to the Moro rebellion in the American period until the current Islamic Insurgency in the Philippines.

The history of the Islamic Insurgency in the Philippines began shortly after independence. The Philippine government envisioned a united country in which Christians and Muslims would be assimilated into the dominant culture. This vision, however, was generally rejected by Muslims, who feared that it was just a euphemistic equivalent of assimilation. Because of this, the government realised that there was a need for a specialized agency to deal with the Muslim community so they set up the Commission for National Integration in 1957, which was later replaced by the Office of Muslim Affairs and Cultural Communities.

Concessions were made to Moros after the creation of these agencies, with Moros receiving exemptions from national laws prohibiting polygamy and divorce. In 1977, the government attempted move a step further by harmonizing Muslim customary law with the national law.

Unfortunately, most of these achievements were superficial. The Moros, dissatisfied with the government, established the Moro National Liberation Front led by Nur Misuari with the intention of creating their own homeland. This initiated the Islamic Insurgency in the Philippines in the late 1960s, which is still ongoing up to the present and has since created a fracture between Muslims and Christians.

By the 1970s, a Christian terrorist organization called the Ilagas began operating in Cotabato. In retaliation, Muslim armed bands, like the Blackshirts of Cotabato and the Barracudas of Lanao began to appear and fight the Ilagas. The Armed Forces of the Philippines were deployed to install peace, however their presence only created more violence.

In 1981, internal divisions within the MNLF caused the establishment of a conservative organization called the MILF. The group proved to be more effective than the MNLF in continuing the insurgency.


Autonomy

After the 1986 EDSA Revolution, President Corazon Aquino decided to reach out to the Moro community.In the year 1987, peace talks with the MNLF began with the intention of establishing an auotonomous region for Moros. On August 1, 1989, through Republic Act No. 6734, otherwise known as the Organic Act, a plebiscite was held in the provinces within the Bangsamoro. This was to determine if the residents would want to be part of an Autonomous Moro Region. This led to the creation of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.
 

 Current situation

Currently, the Philippines is under threat due to the presence of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (the breakaway faction of the MNLF), the Abu Sayyaf (an offshoot of the terror groups), and by Jemaah Islamiyah. While the government is currently under peace talks with both the MILF and the MNLF, the violence is still far from over.

MILF boycotted the original referendum spawned by the Organic Act referendum process, and continued the armed struggle through the 90s and into the 21st century. However, it remains a partner to the stumbling peace process in the south, with the Philippines unwilling to brand MILF a "terrorist" group lest the separatists be driven away from the negotiating table.


 

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (abbreviated ARMM) is the region of the Philippines that is composed of all the Philippines' predominantly Muslim provinces, namely: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, and the Philippines' only predominantly Muslim city, the Islamic City of Marawi. It is the only region that has its own government. The regional capital is at Cotabato City, although this city is outside of its jurisdiction. The ARMM previously included the province of Shariff Kabunsuan until July 16, 2008, when Shariff Kabunsuan ceased to exist as a province after the Supreme Court in Sema v. Comelec declared unconstitutional the "Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act 201", which created it.

On July 18, 2008, Hermogenes Esperon, "peace advisor" to Philippine President Gloria Arroyo, announced a further expansion of the ARMM in line with an agreement reached between the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The deal, concluded after nearly six years of dialogue, gives the ARMM control of an additional 712 villages on the island of Mindanao, as well as far-reaching political and economic powers. Negotiations to finalize the agreement continue.

Massive protests, however, have greeted the move of the GRP and MILF panels in signing a Memorandum of Agreement on Ancestral Domain as a majority of the Local Government Units where these Barangays are connected have already opted not to join the ARMM in two instances, 1989 and 2001.

The region is divided into two geographical areas – the Mindanao mainland and the Sulu Archipelago. Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao and Shariff Kabunsuan are situated in the Mindanao mainland, while Basilan, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi are located within the Sulu Archipelago. ARMM covers a total of 12,288 km².

For the most part of the Philippines' history, the region and most of Mindanao has been a separate territory, which enabled it to develop its own culture and identity. The region has been the traditional homeland of Muslim Filipinos since the 15th century, even before the arrival of the Spanish who colonized most of the Philippines beginning 1565. Arab missionaries arrived in Tawi-Tawi in 1380 and started the conversion of the native population into Islam. In 1457, the Sultanate of Sulu was founded and not long after were the sultanates of Maguindanao and Buayan established. At the time when most of the Philippines was under Spanish rule, these sultanates maintained their independence and regularly challenged Spanish domination of the Philippines by conducting raids on Spanish coastal towns in the north and repulsing repeated Spanish incursions in their territory. It was not until the last quarter of the 19th century that the Sultanate of Sulu formally recognized Spanish sovereignty, however these areas remained loosely controlled by the Spanish as sovereignty was only limited to military stations and garrisons and pockets of civilian settlements in Zamboanga and Cotabato, until they had to abandon the region as a consequence of their defeat in the Spanish-American War.

In 1942, during the early stages of Pacific War (a theater of the Second World War, troops of the Japanese Imperial Forces invaded and overran Mindanao and the ARMM. 3 years later, in 1945, United States and Filipino troops landed in Mindanao, and, with the help of local Filipino guerillas, ultimately defeated the Japanese forces occupying the region.

ARMM's precursors


1970s escalating hostilities between government forces and the MNLF prompted Ferdinand Marcos to issue a proclamation forming an Autonomous Region in the Southern Philippines, which was however, turned down by a plebiscite. In 1979, Batas Pambansa No. 20 created the Regional Autonomous Government in Western and Central Mindanao regions.


Establishment of the ARMM


The Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao region was first created on August 1, 1989 through Republic Act No. 6734 otherwise known as the Organic Act in pursuance with a constitutional mandate to provide for an autonomous area in Muslim Mindanao. A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa and Zamboanga to determine if the residents would want to be part of the ARMM.

Of the areas where the plebiscites were held only Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi voted favorably for inclusion in the new autonomous region. The ARMM was officially inaugurated on November 6, 1990 in Cotabato City, which was designated as its provisional capital.

In 2001 a new law, RA 9054, was passed for the expansion of the ARMM to include the areas which initially rejected inclusion and the provinces which were carved from them, however only Marawi City and Basilan with the exception of Isabela City opted to be integrated in the region.

RA 9054 lapsed into law, without the signature of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. In 2006, a new province was carved out of Maguindanao: Shariff Kabunsuan, the 6th province of ARMM, joining Maguindanao, Lanao del Sur, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and Basilan. In July 2008, however, Sema v. Comelec voided the creation of Shariff Kabunsuan. The Supreme Court of the Philippines declared unconstitutional a section in RA 9054 which granted the ARMM Regional Assembly the power to create provinces and cities. The Comelec ruled that the Supreme Court’s ruling has no effect on the ARMM elections as the decision is not yet final.


ARMM Organizational Structure


The region is headed by a Regional Governor. The Regional Governor and Regional Vice Governor are elected directly like regular local executives. Regional ordinances are created by the Regional Assembly, composed of Assemblymen, also elected by direct vote. Regional elections are usually held one year after general elections (national and local) depending on what legislation from the Philippine Congress. Regional officials have a fixed term of three years, which can be extended by an act of Congress.

The Regional Governor is the chief executive of the regional government, and is assisted by a cabinet not exceeding 10 members. He appoints the members of the cabinet, subject to confirmation by the Regional Legislative Assembly. He has control of all the regional executive commissions, agencies, boards, bureaus and offices.

The executive council advises the Regional Governor on matters of governance of the autonomous region. It is composed of the regional governor, 1 regional vice governor, and 3 deputy regional governors (each representing the Christians, the Muslims, and the indigenous cultural communities). The regional governor and regional vice governor have a 3-year term, maximum of 3 terms; deputies' terms are co-terminus with the term of the regional governor who appointed them.


The ARMM has a unicameral Regional Legislative Assembly headed by a Speaker. It is composed of three members for every congressional district. The current membership is 24, where 6 are from Lanao del Sur including Marawi City, 6 from Maguindanao, 6 from Sulu, 3 from Basilan and 3 from Tawi-Tawi.

The Regional Legislative Assembly is the legislative branch of the ARMM government. The regular members (3 members/district) and sectoral representatives, have 3-year terms; maximum of 3 consecutive terms. It exercises legislative power in the autonomous region, except on the following matters: foreign affairs, national defense and security, postal service, coinage and fiscal and monetary policies, administration of justice, quarantine, customs and tariff, citizenship, naturalization, immigration and deportation, general auditing, national elections, maritime, land and air transportation, communications, patents, trademarks, trade names and copyrights, foreign trade, and may legislate on matters covered by the Shari’ah , the law governing Muslims.


ARMM powers and basic principles


RA 9054 provides that ARMM "shall remain an integral and inseparable part of the national territory of the Republic." The President exercises general supervision over the Regional Governor. The Regional Government has the power to create its own sources of revenues and to levy taxes, fees, and charges, subject to Constitutional provisions and the provisions of RA 9054. The Shariah applies only to Muslims; its applications are limited by pertinent constitutional provisions (prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment).

Economy

The region is one of the most impoverished areas in the Philippines. It has a per capita gross regional domestic product of only PhP3,433 in 2005, 75.8 percent lower than the national average of PhP14,186. It is the lowest among the Philippines' 17 regions, the second lowest region has a per capita income almost double the ARMM's. ARMM has a population of 4.1 million based on the 2007 census. It is the country's poorest region, where average annual income was just 89,000 pesos ($ 2,025) in 2006, less than 1/3 of Manila level.

Poverty incidence in the region is a high 45.4 percent in 2003, almost twice the national average of 24.4 percent. Significant progress has been made in reducing poverty in the region, which was reduced by 10.5 percent from the 2000 figure, only the Caraga region has a higher poverty incidence in 2003. Lanao del Sur reduced its povery incidence by as much as 26.9 percent, placing itself as the 12th most successful province in poverty reduction. Tawi-Tawi and Sulu have reduced their figures by 18 and 17.6 percent, respectively. In 2000, all the four provinces of the ARMM were among the 10 poorest in the Philippines. By 2003, Lanao del Sur, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi were out of the bottom 10, leaving only Maguindanao, which remains to be the second poorest or the second with the highest incidence of poverty among the Philippines' provinces.

Despite its "autonomous" nature, the ARMM receives approximately 98% of its operating revenue from the National Government of the Philippines, and has yet to create significant, viable sources of additional revenue. Perhaps for this reason, the per capita spending on such vital services as education and infrastructure are among the lowest in the Philippines, and the five provinces of the ARMM continue to be ranked consistently on the lower rungs of economic development within the country. The per student expenditure on education, for example, is less than $100, with the result that students within ARMM schools generally score poorly, in comparison with other provinces, on standardized achievement tests administered throughout the country.

ARMM is one of the country's top producers of fish and marine resources, particularly seaweed, which is used in some toothpastes, cosmetics and paints. It has large mineral deposits, including copper and gold.

Cultural Heritage

The native Maguindanaon and other native Muslim/non-Muslim groups have a culture that revolves around kulintang music, a specific type of gong music, found among both Muslim and non-Muslim groups of the Southern Philippines.

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao - Official Website

Bureau of Public Information - ARMM - Latest News & Events in ARMM

        Mindanao Mosque Philippines

Full view of the mosque in of Makhdum, Tubig Indangan, Simunul Island, Tawi-Tawi, the Philippines


 

Probably the biggest mosque in Sibutu is the one in Tandubanak. Sporting a pink and green motif, it stands proudly along the narrow and singular road that bisects the island. Without any wide angle lens, it is difficult to capture the full breadth of the beautiful mosque so the next best alternative is to show how stately it soars above the wooden houses of stilts that are typical of Tawi-Tawi.

 

Masjid Haji Imam, Sitangkai, Tawi-Tawi, the Philippines. This mosque is in the small island of Sitangkai. Practically no one lives in the island which is occupied by a military detachment, this mosque, some schools, a cemetery and a few houses. The rest of the 30,000 people or so live around the island in houses on stilts.

 

      Islamic Mosque - Davao City, Philippines

Muslim Mosque in Zamboanga, Philippines

 

Islam and Muslims in Philippines (Filipino Muslims)

Islam Radio Philippines

Muslim separatism in the Philippines

 Islamic Centers and Organizations

AL FURQAN ISLAMIC ASSOCIATION, INC., Manila
URL: www.afiainc.org   Phone: +966 (1) 4039060

Golden Mosque, Manila


Islamic Studies,Call and Guidance, ISCAG, Manila
Phone: 0063-916-501-5652

Jama Masjid, Manila, philippine
Phone: 5244681

Institute of the Islamic Studies, Manila
URL: http://www.upd.edu.ph/~iis/   Phone: 63-2-9298286

Islamic Information Center, Manila
URL: www.angislam.org   Phone: +63-2-4041619

Almaarif Educational Center inc., Baguio City
Phone: (063)-74-4437367

Hijrah General Hospital, Marawi City, philippine
Phone: 63-633520255

Aklan Islamic Jama Inc., Kalibo, Aklan
URL: www.afiainc.org   Phone: +63.36.268.8730

Al Foqara Mosque Inc., Manila Bay, Philippines
2nd East Extension Masjid, Iligan City, Iligan City
  4thID Diamond Mosque, Cagayan De Oro City
  Abdulbahir Harid mosque purok islam, General Santos City
  Aklan Islamic Jama Inc., Kalibo
  Al Assal Mosque, Manila
  Al Foqara Mosque Inc., Manila Bay
  Al Hedayah Mosque, Botolan
  AL JIHAD MOSQUE, Pagadian City
  Al Kawari Mosque, Daraga
  Al Maarif Mosque, Baguio
  Al-Jahra Village mosque, Zamboanga City
  Al-Khairiah Mosque, Cebu City
  AL-MAHALA MOSQUE, Rosario Cavite
  Arrahman Mosque, Guagua
  Bangladesh Masjid, Subic Bay
  BASILAN GRAND MOSQUE, Isabela
  Bicol Islamic Foundation, Naga City
  BUADI SACAYO ISLAMIC CENTER, Marawi City
  CABAROAN MUSLIM CENTER, San Fernando
  DAR AL-DHIKR ISLAMIC CALL AND GUIDANCE CENTER, Bacalod
  Darul Arqam Mosque, Baguio City
  Diwan Islamic Center, Bayang
  GERSAL MOSQUE, Basilan City
  Golden Mosque, Manila International
  Golden Mosque, Manila
  Gray Mosque, Calabanga
  Greenhills Masjed, SAN JUAN CITY
  guimaras islamic propagation, Guimaras Island
  IBNU ABBAS ISLAMIC CENTER, Caloocan City
  Initiated Act of Bangsamoro for Development in Mindanao, Inc., Cotabato City
  ISLAMIC DAWAH COUNCIL OF THE PHILIPPINES, Manila
  Islamic Information Center, Metro Manila
  Islamic Society of Bacolod City (ISBAC), Bacolod City
  Islamic Studies Call & Guidance PHILIPPINES, Bulacan
  Islamic Studies,Call and Guidance, ISCAG, Manila
  Jama Masjid, Manila
  Jamie'o Mindanao al-Islami, Marawi City
  jumiato moalafate kolobohom for da'wah and guidance, Iloilo City
  Koronadal Grand Mosque, Koronadal Proper
  Lanao del Norte Central Mosque-Islamic League of Momungan, Balo-i
  Little Macca Mosque, Marawi City
  Maranao Islamic Center, Davao City
  Markazu Dawah Al Islamie, NAGA
  Masjib As-sabireen Care Center for new Muslim , Caloocan City
  Masjid Al-Jannah, Zamboanga City
  Masjid al-mubarakat jamaat organization, Isabela
  Masjid Angullia, Alaminos
  Masjid Darul Islam, Bongao Poblacion
  Masjid Darussalam, Lucena City
 
Masjid lukasadatu jama'ah, Marawi City

  Masjid Pamungkalun, Pangutaran
  MCQ Musalla, Makati
  Patadon Mosque, Kidapawan
  Quiapo Masjid, Manila City
  Sugod One Islamic Center, Marawi City
  Sultan Omar Dianalan Mosque, Marawi
  Sultan Omar Dianalan Mosque 2, Iligan City
  Tago Balik Islam Jumaah Association, Inc, Surigao Del Sur
  Tthe Egyption communty mosqe, Manila
  U-Belt Green Mosque, Sampaloc, Manila
  مسجد دار الهجرة, Dagupan
 
Visayan Islamic Studies, Call & Guidance, Kalibo Town

AFIA, INC.-IBAJAY CHAPTER, Ibajay
  AL FURQAN ISLAMIC ASSOCIATION, INC., Manila
  Al Wakil Dawa'h Association, Lucena City
  Al-noor cooperative, Rosario
  ANDEGAN INC., Pagadian City
  ASSOCIATION FOR ISLAMIC DEVELOPMENT (AID) INC., Pagadian Anchorage
  Balik Islam Association of Surigao del Sur, Inc., Tandag
  Balindong youth islamic organization, Balindong
  Bangsamoro Information Technology Society, Inc., Cotabato City
  Basilan Ulama Supreme Council, Basilan City
  Bicol Muslim-Islamic Information & Dawah Center, Inc., Legazpi City
  Bicol Muslims Islamic Information and Dawah Center, Daraga
  Cadet Islamic Credence Society, Baguio City
  Camarin Muslim Center, Inc., Caloocan City
  Care Center for New Muslims, General Santos City
  Center for Islamic Awareness, Manila
  Center for Islamic Research and Information, Manila
  Center for Muslim Youth Studies, Inc. (CMYS), Cotabato City
  Converts to Islam Society of the Philippines, Inc. - Pangasinan Chapter, Alaminos City
  Converts to Islam Society of the Philippines-Pangasinan Chapter, Alaminos
  DAR AMANAH CHILDRENS VILLAGE INC, Silang
  Davao Doctors college Muslim Student Organizatioln, Davao City
  FEDERATED ROYAL SULTANATE LEAGUE OF THE PHILIPPINES (ROSULPHIL), Manila
  Federation of Muslim Student Associations (FMSA), Zamboanga City
  FIL-MUS Filipino Muslim Islamic Da'wah Center, Guidance & Foundation Inc., Quezon City
  Fil-Mus Foundation Inc., Manila
  Iligan Import Export Traders Multi-Purpose Cooperative, Iligan City
  ISLAMIC CIVIL RIGHTS ASSISTANCE, Mabatang River
  Islamic Da`wah Council of the Philippines - Northern Luzon, Alaminos
  Islamic Information Center, Manila
  Islamic Propagation and Research Center Cebu Inc. - IPRCCI, Cebu City
  Islamic Wisdom Worldwide, Manila
  Ittihadush Shabab Almuslimin, Inc., Sulu
  Jumiato Moalafate Kolobohom for Dawah & Guidance, Inc., Kalibo Town
  KAGAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION PHILIPPINES,INC, Manila
  labbayk foundation, Jolo
  Maradeka, Manila
  Marbel Muslim Professionals and Traders Association, Koronadal Proper
  Markaz al-Shabab al-muslim fil philippines, Marawi City
  Musalla Taqwa, Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia-Manila, Makati
  Muslim Business Forum (MBF), Quirino
  MUSLIM BUSINESSMEN AND PROFESSIONALS CLUB OF THE PHILIPPINES, INC., Manila
  MUSLIM GROUP IN ROSARIO Cavite, Rosario, Cavite
  MUSLIM STUDENT COUNCIL, INCORPORATED, Manila
  Muslim Youth Brotherhood, Cotabato City
  Muslims Sharing Skills for Peace and Development Inc, Iligan
  NAGA CITY MUSLIM YOUTH, Naga City
  Naga Islamic Information, Naga City
  Northern Mindanao Muslim Assembly, Incorporated, Cagayan De Oro City
  SHABAB MUSLIMIN, Calabanga
 

  Masjid Pamungkalun, Pangutaran
  MCQ Musalla, Makati
  Patadon Mosque, Kidapawan
  Quiapo Masjid, Manila City
  Sugod One Islamic Center, Marawi City
  Sultan Omar Dianalan Mosque, Marawi
  Sultan Omar Dianalan Mosque 2, Iligan City
  Tago Balik Islam Jumaah Association, Inc, Surigao Del Sur
  Tthe Egyption communty mosqe, Manila
  U-Belt Green Mosque, Sampaloc, Manila
  مسجد دار الهجرة, Dagupan
 
Visayan Islamic Studies, Call & Guidance, Kalibo Town

  AL JAHRA ISLAMIC LEARNING CENTER, Zamboanga City
  Al-Farouq Institute, Palawan
  Almaarif Educational Center inc., Baguio City
  Centre for Islamic Education Research and Information, Inc., Manila
  Darul Uloom Manila, Manila
  Ibn Siena Integrated school, Marawi City
  Institute of Asian and Islamic Studies, Zamboanga
  Institute of Bangsamoro Studies, Cotabato City
  Institute of the Islamic Studies, Manila
  IQRA Kidie Learning Center, Manila City
  Islamic Studies Department, Mindanao State University, General Santos City
  Ma'had da'wa al islamiya, Lamitan
  Maáhad Luzon Ashimali, Baguio City
  Macadato Eastern Academy, Butig
  MADRASA DAROOL ULOOM BLUE MOSQUE, TAGUIG
  Madrasatu Marbel Littarbiyatil Islamiyyah, Koronadal Proper
  Muslim schools in Manila Pilippines, Manila
  Salamat Islamic Institute, Zamboanga City
  معهد بوتيغ العربى الإسلامى, Butig
  Wisdom International School for Higher Education Studies (WISHES), Marawi City
 
ZAID BIN THABIT QURANIC MEMORIZATION CENTER, Marawi City

   Muslim Owned Business

Al-Baraqah Multi-purpose cooperative, San Juan
  Al-Hadiyah Gen. Merchandise Centre, Isulan
  Amil,s Tower Hotel & Restaurant, Zamboanga City
  festival mall muslim traders association, Muntinglupa
  Ghazal Restaurant, Manila
  Ghazal Restaurant, Manila
  Halal Southern Deli, San Juan
  Hapit-Anay Halal Eatery, Kalibo Town
  Hijrah General Hospital, Marawi City
  Hosseins Persian Kebab, Manila
  June-Nairah Halal Food Restaurant, Manila
  Kauthar General Merchandizing, Alaminos
  Millenium Halal Cuisine, Manila
  Neurosurgery Clinic, NAGA
  Scenario Travel Consultancy Services, Quezon City
  Shawarma Snack Center, Manila
  Southern Palawan Muslim Chamber Of Commerce I.N.C., Palawan
  TagsdotCom Internet and Games, Iligan City
  Tasty Fresh Halal, Manila
 
ZERA Agro-Systems and Services, Davao City

References
Islam in Philippines ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_the_Philippines   , September, 2008).
Info please ( http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107887.html,   September, 2008).
Islam Finder ( http://www.islamicfinder.org/cityPrayerNew.php?country=philippines  , September, 2008).
Anonymous, Documents from Representatives of Islamic Organizations in Philippines,  September 2008.