ISLAM and MUSLIMS IN CROATIA
Republic of Croatia
National Name: Republika Hrvatska
Land area: 21,781 sq mi (56,414 sq km); total area: 21,831 sq mi (56,542 sq km)
Population (2008 est.): 4,491,543
Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Zagreb, 685,500
Other large cities: Split, 173,600; Rijeka, 142,500; Osijek, 89,600
Monetary unit: Kuna
Languages: Croatian 96% (official), other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, German)
Ethnicity/race: Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, Bosniak 0.5%, Hungarian 0.4%, Slovene 0.3%, Czech 0.2%, Roma 0.2%, Albanian 0.1%, Montenegrin 0.1%, others 4.1% (2001)
National Holiday: Independence Day, October 8
Religions: Roman Catholic 88%, Orthodox 4%, Muslim 1%, other Christian less than 1%, none 5% (2001)
Literacy rate: 99% (2003 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2005 est.): $53.56 billion; per capita $11,600. Real growth rate: 3.5%. Inflation: 3.2%.
Croatia is a former Yugoslav republic on the Adriatic Sea. It is about the size of West Virginia. Part of Croatia is a barren, rocky region lying in the Dinaric Alps. The Zagorje region north of the capital, Zagreb, is a land of rolling hills, and the fertile agricultural region of the Pannonian Plain is bordered by the Drava, Danube, and Sava Rivers in the east. Over one-third of Croatia is forested.
Croatia, at one time the Roman province of Pannonia, was settled in the 7th century by the Croats. They converted to Christianity between the 7th and 9th centuries and adopted the Roman alphabet under the suzerainty of Charlemagne. In 925, the Croats defeated Byzantine and Frankish invaders and established their own independent kingdom, which reached its peak during the 11th century. A civil war ensued in 1089, which later led to the country being conquered by the Hungarians in 1091. The signing of the Pacta Conventa by Croatian tribal chiefs and the Hungarian king in 1102 united the two nations politically under the Hungarian monarch, but Croatia retained its autonomy.
Following the defeat of the Hungarians by the Turks at the battle of Mohács in 1526, Croatia (along with Hungary) elected Austrian archduke Ferdinand of Hapsburg as their king. After the establishment of the Austro-Hungarian kingdom in 1867, Croatia became part of Hungary until the collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918 following its defeat in World War I. On Oct. 29, 1918, Croatia proclaimed its independence and joined in union with Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929.
When Germany invaded Yugoslavia in 1941, Croatia became a Nazi puppet state. Croatian Fascists, the Ustachi, slaughtered countless Serbs and Jews during the war. After Germany was defeated in 1945, Croatia was made into a republic of the newly reconstituted Communist nation of Yugoslavia; however, Croatian nationalism persisted. After Yugoslavian leader Tito's death in 1980, Croatia's demands for independence began multiplying.
In 1990, free elections were held, and the Communists were defeated by a nationalist party led by Franjo Tudjman. In June 1991, the Croatian parliament passed a declaration of independence from Yugoslavia. Six months of intensive fighting with the Serbian-dominated Yugoslavian army followed, claiming thousands of lives and wreaking mass destruction.
A UN cease-fire was arranged on Jan. 2, 1992. The UN Security Council in February approved sending a 14,000-member peacekeeping force to monitor the agreement and protect the minority Serbs in Croatia. In a 1993 referendum, the Serb-occupied portion of Croatia (Krajina) resoundingly voted for integration with Serbs in Bosnia and Serbia proper. Although the Zagreb government and representatives of Krajina signed a cease-fire in March 1994, further negotiations broke down. In a lightning-quick operation, the Croatian army retook western Slavonia in May 1995. Similarly, in August, the central Croatian region of Krajina, held by Serbs, was returned to Zagreb's control.
Islamic History and Muslims
Islam in Croatia was introduced by the Muslim Ottoman Empire. The
Muslims constitute about 1.3% of the population of Croatia. The Muslim Ottoman
civilization conquered part of Croatia from the 15th to the 19th century and
left a deep imprint. Some Croats converted to Islam. The advancement of Ottoman
Empire in Europe was stopped on Croatian soil, which could be in this sense
regarded as a historical gate of European civilization. Since 1519 Croatia has
been known as Antemurale Christianitatis in Western Europe. The name was given
by Pope Leo X.
Islamic Centers and Organizations
ISLAMIC RELIGION UNIT, Rieka,
Islamic centar Zagreb, Zagreb,
Medresa, Zagreb, Croatia
Islamske zajednice Pula, Pula
islamske zajednice Umag, Umag, Croatia
Islamska zajednica u RH Džema'at
Bogovolja, Bogovolja, Cetingrad
Islamski centar gunja, Gunja
Muslim Owned Business