ISLAM and MUSLIMS IN HUNGARY
Republic of Hungary
National name: Magyar Köztársaság
area: 35,653 sq mi (92,341 sq km); total area: 35,919 sq mi (93,030
Population (2008 est.): 9,930,915
Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Budapest, 2,597,000 (metro. area),
1,769,500 (city proper)
Other large cities: Debrecen, 210,500; Miskolc, 182,600; Szeged, 173,200;
Monetary unit: Forint
Languages: Magyar (Hungarian) 94%, other 6%
Ethnicity/race: Hungarian 92.3%, Roma 1.9%, other or unknown 5.8% (2001)
Religions: Roman Catholic 52%, Calvinist 16%, Lutheran 3%, Greek Catholic
3%, other Christian 1%, unaffiliated 15% (2001)
National Holiday: Saint Stephen's Day, August 20
Literacy rate: 99% (2003 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2007 est.): $194.2 billion; per capita
$19,500. Real growth rate: 2.1%. Inflation: 7.8%.
central European country is the size of Indiana. Most of Hungary is a fertile,
rolling plain lying east of the Danube River and drained by the Danube and Tisza
rivers. In the extreme northwest is the Little Hungarian Plain. South of that
area is Lake Balaton (250 sq mi; 648 sq km).
B.C., western Hungary was part of the Roman Empire's
provinces of Pannonia and Dacia. The area east of the Danube was never part of
the Roman Empire and was largely occupied by various Germanic and Asiatic
peoples. In 896 all of Hungary was invaded by the Magyars, who founded a
kingdom. Christianity was accepted during the reign of Stephen I (St. Stephen),
977–1038. A devastating invasion by the Mongols killed half of Hungary's
population in 1241. The peak of Hungary's great period of medieval power came
during the reign of Louis I the Great (1342–1382), whose dominions touched the
Baltic, Black, and Mediterranean seas. War with the Turks broke out in 1389, and
for more than 100 years the Turks advanced through the Balkans. When the Turks
smashed a Hungarian army in 1526, western and northern Hungary accepted Hapsburg
rule to escape Turkish occupation. Transylvania became independent under
Hungarian princes. Intermittent war with the Turks was waged until a peace
treaty was signed in 1699.
the suppression of the 1848 revolt, led by Louis Kossuth, against Hapsburg rule,
the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary was set up in 1867. The dual monarchy was
defeated, along with the other Central Powers, in World War I. After a
short-lived republic in 1918, the chaotic Communist rule of 1919 under Béla Kun
ended with the Romanians occupying Budapest on Aug. 4, 1919. When the Romanians
left, Adm. Nicholas Horthy entered the capital with a national army. The Treaty
of Trianon of June 4, 1920, by which the Allies parceled out Hungarian
territories, cost Hungary 68% of its land and 58% of its population.
War II, Hungary allied with Germany, which aided the country in recovering lost
territories. Following the German invasion of Russia on June 22, 1941, Hungary
joined the attack against the Soviet Union, but withdrew in defeat from the
eastern front by May 1943. Germany occupied the country for the remainder of the
war and set up a puppet government. Hungarian Jews and Gypsies were sent to
death camps. The German regime was driven out by the Soviets in 1944–1945.
Treaty of Paris (1947), Hungary had to give up all territory it had acquired
since 1937 and to pay $300 million in reparations to the USSR, Czechoslovakia,
and Yugoslavia. In 1948, the Communist Party, with the support of Soviet troops,
seized control. Hungary was proclaimed a People's Republic and one-party state
in 1949. Industry was nationalized, the land collectivized into state farms, and
the opposition terrorized by the secret police. The terror, modeled after that
of the USSR, reached its height with the trial and life imprisonment of József
Cardinal Mindszenty, the leader of Hungary's Roman Catholics, in 1948. On Oct.
23, 1956, an anti-Communist revolution broke out in Budapest. To cope with it,
the Communists set up a coalition government and called former prime minister
Imre Nagy back to head the government. But he and most of his ministers
sympathized with the anti-Communist opposition, and he declared Hungary a
neutral power, withdrawing from the Warsaw Treaty and appealing to the United
Nations for help. One of his ministers, János Kádár, established a counterregime
and asked the USSR to send in military power. Soviet troops and tanks suppressed
the revolution in bloody fighting after 190,000 people had fled the country.
Under Kádár (1956–1988), Communist Hungary maintained more liberal policies in
the economic and cultural spheres, and Hungary became the most liberal of the
Soviet-bloc nations of eastern Europe. Continuing his program of national
reconciliation, Kádár emptied prisons, reformed the secret police, and eased
Hungary's Communists abandoned their monopoly on power voluntarily, and the
constitution was amended in Oct. 1989 to allow for a multiparty state. The last
Soviet troops left Hungary in June 1991, thereby ending almost 47 years of
military presence. The transition to a market economy proved difficult. In April
1999, Hungary became part of NATO, and in May 2004, it joined the EU.
Islamic History and Muslims
Islam in Hungary has a long history that
dates back to at least the twelfth century, predating the Ottoman Empire. The
influence of Muslims was especially pronounced in the 16th century during the
time of Ottoman Hungary.
Islam was first brought to Hungary parts of the Turkish Folk of Chevalison and
of the Volga Bulgarians who had emigrated during the 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th
centuries and formed an important political, military, financial and commercial
factor.. In old Hungarian language the Muslim were called Böszörmény, the term
preserved as a family name and in the name of the town Hajdúböszörmény.
The first Islamic author to speak of this Muslim community was Yaqut al-Hamawi
(575-626 AH/1179-1229 CE)." Yaqut writes in his famous geographical dictionary,
"Mu'ajam al-Buldan,"  about his meeting with Ismaili youth in Syria who was
studying Islam there and brought some details of the history and life of their
people in Hungary. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the first Hungarian chronicler
from the 12th century, the town Pest (today part of the capital Budapest was
established by Muslim/Shiite/Ismaili people.
"..so arrived from the country of Bular the excellent men Billa and Baksh with
numerous Muslims. The duke (Geza, father of Stephen I) gave them property in the
various parts of the country and furthermore a castle called Pest.."
The Muslim traveler Abu Hamid al Garnati
wrote of two types of Muslims in Hungary. In the 11th century, St. Ladislaus and
later Coloman passed laws against the non-Christians (Synod of Szabolcs). These
laws subdued Islam concerned with Muslims to eat pork, go to Church and
intermarry and to forbid them from celebrating Friday.
Some of Coloman's laws include:
§ 46 If someone catches Ismaelites in fasting or eating or on keeping away from
pork or in ritual washing or in other false practices these Ismaelites have to
be sent to the king and whoever sued them shall receive a share from their
§ 47 We command all Ismaelite villages to build a church and finance it. After
the church is built the half village should move and settle elsewhere in order
to became similar to us in living together and also in Christ and in Church
(i.e. become similar in faith).
§ 48 Ismaelites should not marry their daughters to their nation but only to our
$ 49 If an Ismaelite has guest, or he invites someone to his house to eat, he
and his guests should all eat only pork.
László (Saint Ladislaus) passed the following law
§ 9 on the merchants called Ismaelites, if becomes evident from them then after
their baptism they return their old laws based on circumcision they should leave
their homes but if they prove innocent they should stay.
Turkish Rule of mid-Hungary
The Turks entered Hungary after the Battle of Mohács in 1526. From 1541 they
started to control the middle part directly.And organized three vilayets: Buda,
Várad (Oradea) and Temesvár.
In 16th century, during the time of the Ottoman Rule of Hungary, numerous Muslim
personalities were born in Hungary. Among them,the most important were the
Ottoman Grand Vizier came from Hungary, Kanijeli Siyavuţ Pasha (from Nagykanizsa)
who held the function three times between 1582 and 1593, and the famous
Mevlevian dervish Pecsevi Árifi Ahmed Dede, a Turk native of Pécs.
In the 19th century, after the collapse of
the revolution 1849, more than 6.000 emigrated Poles and Hungarians followed
General Josef Bem in Turkish exile. For example the Hungarian officers such as
Richard Guyon (Kurshid Pasha), György Kmety (Ismail Pasha) and Maximilian Stein
(Ferhad Pasha) followed Josef Bem .These mentioned personalities were raised to
the post of General, afterwards.
Guyon is described in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography as "the first
Christian to obtain the rank of pasha and a Turkish military command without
being obliged to change his religion", a sign of modernizing meritocracy under
the 19th-century Ottomans. According to the 2002 official Hungarian
census, there were 3,201 Muslims living in Hungary at the time, making up 0.03%
of the population.
Old mosque in Pécs.
Islamic Community Mosque
al Fitr in Kultur Museum, Budapest, 2002.
Formerly the Pasha
Gazi Kassim Mosque, now converted to the Inner Town Parish Church, this is
the largest Turkish structure still standing in Hungary
While many of the churches in Pecs were transformed into mosques during the
Turkish occupation and then back again into Christian homes of worship, the
Jakovali Hassan Mosque is still an active center of Islamic faith. It serves
the small population of practicing students who are attending the nearby
medical university. Dating from the 1500's, it's amazing the building has
remained intact. Perhaps even more surprising is that the minaret out behind
the mosque is also stil standing tall, though it is off limits to the
mosque's visitors. A small museum display in the lobby illustrates the
history of the mosque and the city of Pecs under Turkish rule.
THE HISTORY OF ISLAM IN HUNGARY
by Zoltan Bolek
I. The hungarian Islam from the Beginning
About kabar, BISSANI and other tribes
For someone, who is analysing the history of Hungarian Islam they have to go
back in time before the Hungarian conquest, in Levedia. In this period of time
the Hungarian tribes belonged to the Kazar Empire or rather it belonged to its
vassals. In Kazaria, a large amount of the traders and kazar notabilities were
Muslims, not to mention the large parts of the solders of Kazan, whom mostly
came from Hvarezm.
These hvarezmis appeared in the Hungarian
tribe union in the IX century. We do not know the exact situation of the
appearance. Next to the seven conquering Hungarian tribes, 3 kabar tribes joined
the union. These kabar tribes in one opinion broke away from Kazaria, but
according to another source they escaped from there. The Emperor of Constantine
writes about the above mentioned as the following: "It is known, that the so
called kabar came from the kazar clan. It happened that there was a revolt
against the government, which caused a civil war. The previous government had
returned, from which many had been killed others had escaped and settled down
with Turkic (note: Hungarians) on the land of Bissani, and they became friends
and started to call themselves as Kabars."
From the words of the Emperor facts can be
concluded, which says that the leaders of the Hungarians chose a leader of their
own out of the united tribes of three kavar or kabar tribes. The task of this
leader or prince was to keep the connection with the leaders of the leading
Hungarian tribes. Kabars were surly an inferior tribe, which can be proved by
that fact, that as an armed auxiliary nation they served in the area of front
and back defend .
So they were the first to go in a battle,
and also they were the last to leave. Kabars became a double language speaking
nation, and next to their own Turkic language, they could speak in Hungarian
too, and then by 950 the Turkic language slowly disappeared. Out of the
conquering Hungarians the rate of kabars was 20-30 %. Next to kabars other
Muslim nations had joined, like hvarezmi too.
In the Latin sources "Saracenus" was used for the meaning of Islamic. The
Hungarian equivalent of this is Bezermin or rather Saracen. The three kabar
tribes were mostly Islamic. Sámuel Aba, who was a king of Hungary, was a
kabar too. His ancestors were the princes of the three kabar tribes. The Emperor
of Constantine and Byzantium, who was born in puke, called the kabars as kavars.
According to Anonymous, kabars got lands in the Mátra for settling down. From
the XIII-XIV century it's known, that the lands of Aba clan were in this area
too. (For example Abasár). This was the time when Sámule Aba married to one of
the youngest sisters of King Saint Stephen. Naturally, a condition for Sámuel
Aba for this marriage was to became a Christian.
Thanks to this marriage, our first king
entered into a strong alliance with kabars. Sámuel Aba established the Monastery
of Abasár at the time of his marriage. With the marriage and becoming a
Christian, Sámuel Aba lost his title of chieftain, but in the same time he got
into the Court of King Saint Stephen, which meant that he became a member of the
advisory body, which lead the policy of the country. As the relative of the king
he had an important position in it. He received the title of palace lieutenant,
which title was organized on the basis of a German sample. This title was the
later called the palatine position. Stephen knew that the Christianity of Sámuel
Aba was superficial, so after the death of his son, Prince Emery, he did not
sign Sámuel Aba as his follower but, the truly Christian Peter. King Stephen
forced kabars, "Black Hungarians" for guarding the fields. Naturally because of
lack of information and sources, there are many different opinion about the
early age of Hungarian Muslims.
After the Conquest, Muslim emigrations were all voluntary. This emigration came
from the area of Maghrib and Hvárezmi. During the kings from the House of Árpád,
two different legal opinions characterized the Hungarian Muslims. Either they
could practice their belief, which mostly was available for the soldiers, or
they became Christian under pressure and practiced their Muslim belief in
When they were fighting against the Danube Bulgarians, these Muslims were at the
head of the Turkic and agitated the enemy's ex Muslims to return to their
traditional belief, to the Islam. "If they have been under the Turkic's
protection, they would have sent them back to the lands of Muslims." Muslims
could freely practice their traditional belief in Hungary before the time of
Christianity. This was typical for any nomad state. Al-Barki writes about this
fact as the following: Turkic "ransom Jews and Muslims if they are in captivity
in any province of the neighbourhood. Hungarians take good care of their
The Káliz group were an important part of the nation, who settled from the area
Names of settlements: Káloz (Fejér county
1326: Kaluz, Kálócfa, Zala county 1426 Kalozfalua, Budakalász, Pest county,
1332-1337, Kaluz) Hungarians were in contact with the Kaliz even before the
conquest. Before the conquest, hvárezmi spoke the Iranian language and many of
them lived in Kazaria and in the city of Bulgar. Later, the Old Iranian language
was changed to Turkish. From the XII century we have much information
about "Káliz". A Byzantium history writer, Kinnamosz explains the battle (1150)
of Hungarians and Byzantium, and he also mentions that other nations, who had
different beliefs, were fighting with Hungarians too. These nations were kaliz
and bissani. According to him, kaliz nation had the same religion as the
Persians. This happened in 1165.
The trade road between the Danube and the Tisza was named after this nation ("Káliz-Road")
. Alán and úz were mentioned as Islam immigrants in the X century (they arrived
with the second bissani migration). Hungarians called the alan as varsány.
It can be presumed, that the settlements or personal names called as varsány
connects to the Islamic believer aláns.
During the reign of Prince Taksony, in the period of 960-972 many Muslim Volga
Bulgarians moved to our Country with their leaders, called Billa and Bucsu. The
name of Billa possible a changed type of Bilal which is a Muslim name. The Volga
Bulgarians had to escape into our Country because of an internal power war.
They settled in the area of the present 15
March Square. A smaller group of them settled in other parts of Pest County (Bille
and Bócsa puszta). The settled leaders' progenies were the Etyei clan. In 962
Prince Taksony sent a Muslim believer Volga Bulgarian delegate to Italy, whose
name was Salek. It's possible that this name comes from the name of Saleh. In
this age, armed auxiliary nations of Muslims were settled in the area of Orsova
by Al-Duna. Rusta Ibn and Gardézia Arabic travellers's studies explain the state
and life style of the Volga Bulgarians.
"Bulgarians live in the neighbourhood of
Slavonic and Kazar, along the Atil (Volga) river, which runs into the Kazár
(Caspian) Sea. The king of the Bulgarian was called Álmus, and he was a Muslim.
The rest of the Bulgarians were Muslim too. They had mosques and schools, and
also muezzin and imam. They were dressing like Muslims their burial-grounds were
similar to the Muslims too." These studies came from the X. century. Fadlan Ibn
wrote, that the Bulgarian prince asked the Baghdadi caliph to send scientists of
religion to help his nation.
The delegate of the Bulgarian prince was a Kazar Muslim, and his name was
Abdallah Ibn al-Hazari. I would also mention that the direct neighbours of the
Kazár were the Eastern Hungarians, whom Julianus found later.
BISSANI ( BESENYŐ)
Many Bissanis arrived to our Home too. Before the conquest they were our enemy,
but as they lost battles against Byzantium and Kiev their state fall apart and
became very weak. During the kings of House of Árpád, the settled bissanis were
univoltine Muslims and they were settled in Pest, Moson, Fejér, Szepes counties.
One part of them was soldiers, but there were traders and agricultures too. We
have to mention bissani Prince Tonzuba, who arrived to our Home with his nation
during the reign of Saint Stephen. They belonged to the early bissani migration,
and they possible weren't Islamic, but there could have been some Muslim
As he refused to became a Christian, he
and his wife was berried alive in the Abádi rév. His soldiers were settled in
different areas. After 1100 many besenyő immigrated into our Home. The
reasons for this were, that they lost many battles against Byzantium and also
the Hungarian kings welcomed them as auxiliary army. Not to mention that fact,
that we had many problems with Byzantium, who tried to expand their territories
in this age. Besenyő assimilation took the longest. They were soldiers,
and also they lived in blocks which slowed down the assimilation. By the XV
Century, they were only speaking in Hungarian, wearing Hungarian costumes, but
they still kept the knowledge of their origin. At the age of Árpád we can surly
say, that 150 settlements were besenyő origin.
According to Anonymus, they arrived to our Home in the X. century. Bezermin (böszörmény)
actually means all Muslims, and according to Anonymus, they were Volga
Bulgarians or "Black Hungarians". Our oldest data come from proper names, and
the oldest common names are bezermen, buzermen. XIII-XIV century's toponyms are
Buzermen, Bezermen, Bozermen. Nowadays for example: Berekböszörmény (Hajdu-Bihar
county, since 1291), Hajdúböszörmény (Hajdú-Bihar county, since 1246).
Professor Melich considered these Muslims'
origin as bissani, Kuhn, palóc. Others considered them as Kazárs or besenyő.
Many considered them as Muslims, speaking in Turkish. Before the tartars, many
travellers (for example: Carpini Plano) considered besenyő as a nation speaking
the Kuhn language, and following the "szaracé" religion.
The final source of the word "böszörmény"
is Muscleman. This name's Turkish variations are büsürman, bisirman, büsürmen.
The last one is in Hungarian.
These above mentioned Muslim nations were archers, light horse fighters,
traders. Their settlements were usually by an important trade route. Bigger
settlements were in the area of Mezőföld and Mátra, and also in the South part
of the country. In the area by the borders they were settled in the purpose of
defending. Smaller colonies were all around, and traders lived in all
Kazár Empire and the Islam
As in this period of time Hungarians were under Kazár occupation, and also as we
had a strong connection with this nation later, we have to analyse this period
of time in more detail. Constantine wrote as the following: "Hungarians lived
together with Kazárs for 3 years, and they fought in all battles with the Kazárs."
Because of the content, many searchers stated that the period when Hungarians
and Kazárs lived together lasted for 200-300 years. This makes us conclude that
Hungarian depended on Kazárs.
The battalion of Muslim kalifat system, after occupying Debrecen, went up to the
North where the Kazár Emperor had its golden age. The Kazár Emperor was a
typical nomad Emperor and its area was between Middle-Asia and the Crim-half
Island. They met the Islam religion in Middle-Asia and on its land there were
many Muslim traders.
The first unsuccessful battle was between
642-652. In 642 Muslim Arabic battalions attacked that age's Kazár capital town,
Balanjár. There were many little battles, but then in 652 a big Muslim battalion
attacked the capital city. The strengthen capital disputed; the cavalry defeated
the besiegers. During the battle the leader of the Muslim died too. In the
second Kazár-Arabian battle (722-737), first Kazárs could defeat the Arabians,
but later the Kazár Emperor lost the battle. In 722, Kazár defeated Arabians.
Then the Arabic leader started another battle against Debrecen. Kazárs got
prepared for the besiege by organizing a large battalion. Their leader was
Arabians still occupied the Kazár
positions. They occupied Balanjar, and the Kazár defenders of the town escaped
to Semender. Jarrah turned back just before Semender, and he started his the
next military expedition in the next year (725). First he went against the aláns,
but before anything could have happened, the new kalifa called him back and
replaced his title by Maslamah. Maslamah, the legendary leader, occupied one of
the main defile of the Caucasus, Dariel in 727.
After the initial success, the kalifa
recalled him too. Jarrah reappeared in the Caucasus and he went against the new
capital, Szarizsin, through the Dariel defile, but he couldn't reach any
sockdolager. In 730 the war renewed between the Kazárs and Arabians. The leader
Barcsiq, with a battalion with 300 thousand soldiers attected the Arabians
through the Dariel defile. On the third day of the battle, the Arabian defeated.
Jarrah prostrated, his wives and children fall into Kazár's hand. Kazárs used
their successful position and they started to chase the escaping enemy, and also
managed to get close to Moszul. Possible this was the golden age for the Kazár
Arabians did not defer to their defeat. Szaid took the rains of the organization
of the war against the Kazars. He had only a few successful battle, but the
Arabian traditional blew it up. After him, Maslaham was again who organized the
battles against the Kazars. He crossed Derben, and reached Semendery without
having any bigger trouble. At this point a new leader was placed to the front of
the Arabian battalion, his name was Marwan (732).
After the "traditional" battles, in 737, he started the final campaign. He
crossed unexpectedly the Dariel and Derbenti defiles. Kazárs had to escape
towards North. Arabian battalions followed them and destroyed everything on
Arabians caught the Kagár by the Volga. The Arabian leader decided to negotiate
instead of having a sockdolager. As the Kagárs were not in the position to give
orders, their leader had to agree to the claims of Marwan, which meant that he
had to become an Islamic believer. After this the Arabians left Kazária. This
happened in 737. Kazária survived. In the next 100 years they were managing all
smaller nations in the area. At this time Islam got more and more popular around
I would like to notify that later the kazár kagán became Jewish believers, but
this religion only stayed in this little group, or rather between immigrants
from Byzantium. Hungarians took the double prince state while they were living
together with the Kazárs. Maszudi writes about Kazárs as the following: Apart
from a big mosque (in the capital, which minaret run above the palace of the
king, there are smaller mosques, to which schools are attached, where children
learn to read the Koran. If Muslim would agree with Christians, the king of
kazars would not have any power over them. " "Muslims are the leader element in
the Kazar Emperor, because the guardsman of the king is one of them. They came
from the area of Kvhárezm, and they escape to the king of Kazár because of Black
Death and wars (because of the spread of Islam). The present vezít a Muslim too,
he is called Ahmed ben Kovaiah. Their judges are in their religion too."
Ibn Haukal writes about them as the
following: "Their living places are nemezsátrak, and there are only a few houses
which are made of wattle. They have markets and bath but in this part of the
city there are not so many Muslims. The number of the Muslims is over thousand
and they have about thirty mosques. " There were Muslims between Hungarians,
which can be proved by Ibn Fadlan' notes: "They arrived to the land of the
Turkish nation, which was called Basgurd. One of them who became Muslim was a
slave with us." Cumanians and Tatars settled as an Islamic nation into our Home
after the Tatar migration.
The Cumanian tribes established a nomadic state which extend from the Caspian
Sea to the border of the Hungarian Kingdom. They were displaced by Mongols.
There were Muslims and Christians among Cumanians, although most of them
believed in shaman before the Mongol invasion. Shatan (in Arabic sejtán) and
prophet words comes from the Arabic vocabulary of Islam, which words if has came
from the Christian vocabulary, wouldn't have had the same meaning with the
Islamic. There are no data of any Islam among Cumanians before the age of
Mongols, but surly there were many of them already.
The diplomacy of Cumanian had expanded
after the appearance of Mongols. The purpose of the delegation to Baghdad
(1223), which was lead by the san of Köncsek leader, Kumarmis Kolcy, was to
built up a defence union against Mongols and becoming Islam believer. A similar
delegation was sent for the purpose to make the Cumanians to become Christian.
(1223) Cumanians had kept an important trade connection with Egypt and Syria.
In this age, the most important trading issue for the north parts was human
being, whom Muslims bought. The Ayubbids trained soldiers and gourdsmen out of
the Northern Turkic slaves. These were the mameluks (Arabic: mamluk: bought
slaves). At the first appearance of Mongolians, Russians and Kuhn were called
for a union at the land of kipcsak. But it was all for nothing. Mongolian
leader, Dzseb and Szübötáj damaged the unified battalions. After the defeat of
the battle, Kötöny (kuthen) prince withdrew to the area of Havaselve with an
important ethnical group of cumanians.
As the geological capability and the number of Cumanians didn't give the chance
to win over the Mongols, the Cumanian prince sent a delegation to king of Béla
IV. He asked the Hungarian king to let his nation into the country, and also to
protect them if needed. He offered his strong army power against the possible
outside offensives. I won't go into detail about withdrawal of Cumanians and the
Tatar migration. Prince Kötöny was lynched by the angry crowd in Buda. Cumanians
left the country on the South border with destroying everything.
Tatars left a huge damage. Béla IV, who we can easily call as the second founder
of the state, called settler (hospes) into the country. Turkish Muslims arrived
from East, and Cumanias came back from the Balkan too. The king settled them in
the area between Danube and Tisza and by the river of Körös, Maros and Temes. On
the assigned areas, they could live in a nomad style, and could keep their
traditions and dressing. As free men they had to go to war if the king asked
them so, and they received the same privilege as nobles had.
Although they had to became Christian, for
which the king sent ten Dominic monks. Proselytising didn't go well, Cumanians
stack to their traditional religion, and Muslims to Islam. Béla IV kept a really
good relationship with Cumanians. He married his sun to a Cumanian. The Cumanian
wife was from a prince family, according to many searchers she was a daughter of
Cumanian prince. This marriage gave more power to the Cumanians in the Royal
In the campaigns of the king, Cumanians had an important position as nomadic
light horse fighters. Thanks to them he could beat the Austrian king, Frigyes
The Islamic religion of the Cumanians can
be proved by the fact that the Cumanian soldiers could have four wives, which
can be seen at the age of king IV. László. László IV is called also as Cumanian
László, his mother came from a Cumanian prince family (Cumanian Erzsébet).
László IV was born in 1262, and he was already engaged to the Sicilian king's,
Anjou I Charles, daughter in 1269. In the first years of his reign he had many
difficulties with the Hungarian nobles. They couth him and put him in prison
many times. The internal difficulties became worse thanks to the situation in
the German-Roman Emperor. László IV supported Habsburg Rudolf (against the Chez
king, Ottokár) and he also went to war with him.
In 1278, by Dürnkrut he won the battle
against Ottokár. Chez king died in the battle too. Cumanian László found help
for policy and army for the internal anarchy at the Cumanians. Cumanian László
took the traditions of Cumanians. He dressed like him, he ate with them. This
was the time, when he got married to three Cumanian girls: Ajdun, Küpcsecs,
Tolon. The Church could not watch this without a word, and sent a papal legate
to the country. Two Cumanian main person (Uzur and Tolon) participated in the
The result of the discussion was:
Cumanians can live in a noble freedom, the main judge of the Cumanians has to be
the palatine. On the other hand the Cumanian had to settle for good and they all
have to become Christian. They also have to reserve aggression and have to
release all slaves part from the ones who they cought in abroad. The king had
agreed to everything, but he didn't keep his promise, and he continued where he
stopped. He also couth the papal legate, and gave them to Cumanians. There was
no aggression as in the main time the king was arrested too. On the next
discussions the king was made to turn against the Cumanians. Cumanians defeated
in the Hódi battle (1280), even though they received help from the Cumanian
One part of Cumanians had stayed here, settled down and were christened, the
others moved back to Havaselve. In this period of time Cumanian László defeated
the Tatars, who invaded till Pest, and made them to settle.
Even though László liked Cumanians, then
later the Tatars too, and his style of living was similar to theirs, we can't
surly state that he took the Islamic religion. László loved a Cumanian girl, his
mother was Cumanian, his friends were Cumanian, he fought with them, and a
Cumanian was his assassin too. He was on his usual way to the Cumanians in the
spring of 1290, when 3 assassins killed him on the 10 of July. He was berried in
Csanád. His murder was revenged by the Cumunian palatine, Mizse and its brother
and brother of László's love.
About the eastern travel of Juliánus
Julianus writes the following about Muslims, who were a neighbouring nation with
Hungarians: "Julianus was left alone, and he didn't know his way, so he became a
slave of a Mohammedans priest and his wife, who were on their way to
Big-Bulgaria." At this point he mentioned the town of Szuvar, which is Muslim,
and the previous town before the Volga Bulgarians. Continuation: "Tatar nation
is a neighbouring nation with us (Hungarians who live in their original home).
In this land of the Hungarians, the traveller met the delegate of the Tatar
leader, who spoke in Hungarian, Russian, Cumanian language, German and Arabian.
According to this, the Hungarians who lived in the original land, had more
information about Islam religion, lived in friendship with the Muslims, and
surly some of the Hungarians were Islamic too.
Before the examination of those Muslim Tatars who settled in Hungary, I want to
explain the history of the Mongolian Emperor and the Golden Horde.
Dzsingisz khan, in his original name Temüdzsin was over his forties, when he
united all Mongolian tribes. At this time the Mongolians choose him to be the
big khan, and this was the time when he took the name of Dzsingisz khan.
Dzsingisz khan organized a nomad army based state and started to occupy the
World. In 1219-1221 he ravaged Middle-Asia, he entered to India, then he damaged
the nomads in South puszta. In 1223, in the battle by the river of Kalka,
Mongolians had destroyed the Russian battalions, than they returned to the
Dzsingisz khan died in 1227 from internal
injuries, which he got when he fall of from his horse in one of the battle (at
this time he was 70 years old). After his death, the new big khan was not the
oldest sun (Dzsocsi) of his, but his third one, Ögödej. In 1236 Mongolian
battalions took an offensive towards the West under the leadership of Batu (he
was the san of Dzsocsi). They defeated the Cumanians and the Volga Bulgarians.
Surly this is the time, when Magna Hungaria was destroyed. This was the land of
those Hungarians who stayed by the river of Volga. Mongolians occupied and
destroyed Moskow and Vlagyimir. In 1238 Russians defeated another battle (by the
river of Szity) against the Mongolians. Mongolians, with the leadership of Batu
and Szübotáj, took an offensive against Hungary. Few years after the defeat of
Béla IV , they had settled in our country.
At this time, Mongolian battalions were
mostly consist of Turkish. Tatars were prevail, hint why the name of the Tatar
migration. The other san of Dzsocsi, Berke was the first who became Islam
believer as the leader of the Golden Horde. At this time the Mongolian
aristocrats and army was mostly Muslim. The original living place of Berke khan
was the Northern part of the Caucasus in the period of his brother's life.
Muslims arriving from the area of Iranian and Asia-Minor could only enter to the
Golden Horne through Berke. Berke met the Islam in the South. The news that
Batu's younger brother became Muslim was known in that time when Batu was still
Halics and Lomodéria rebelled against the
Tatar occupation, but Berke defeated it easily. Berke wrote a letter to Béla IV
wherein he offered to marry their children. IV. Béla's san, Stephen should
support the Tatar migration with quarter of the Hungarian army, for a 1/5 part
share from the takings. Berke would have not ask for any tax, and he would have
offered piece. He threatened that in that case if the Hungarian king does not
except the offer, he will damage Hungary.
In this very situation IV. Béla asked for
papal help and advice, but the pope could not give anything else then moral
support and disallowance of the union.
IV. Béla tried to win time, by not answering. Berke was busy with the southern
borders, so he had no time to care about Hungarians and Polish. After Berke we
should mention the following khans and emir: Mengü-Temür (1267-1280) and
Telebuga khan (1287-1291), Nogáj emir. Their name has connections with the
settlement of Muslim Tatars in Hungary.
In 1285-1286 Tatars went towards the west
with the leadership of Nogáj and Telebuga. First they took an offensive against
Hungary and they reached Pest.
Possible Cumanian László had supported them. Nogaj's offensive had not meant
another national tragedy. They came from the North, they had destroyed the
northern counties, and then they went to Transylvania where they met with a
rebellion, so they decided to leave. Many from Nogáj's battalion were arrested.
Many Tatar clam settled in the country, whom László settled down. There were a
few thousand soldiers, and most of them were Muslims. For a long period of time
they had the same privilege as the Cumanians, but soon they assimilated to the
Cumanians because of the similarity of their languages.
Notes of Abu Hamid al-Andaluszi al-Garnati about the Hungarian Muslims
Al-Garnáti was born in Granada in 1080. He travelled most of the known world at
that time. He had been in Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Hvárezm, Volga Bulgaria,
Kiev, and he lived in our home for three years during the reign of II. Géza. He
called Hungarians as "básgird". He writes about his time here as the following:
"I lived with them for three years". I bought a slave girl, who was born in
captivity for concubine. She was 15 years old, and more beautiful than the moon,
her hair and eyes were black, and her skin as white as the camphor. She can
cook, sew and count. I bought another girl too, she was eight years old, and she
cost 5 dinar. From the first girl, I had a san, but he died. I set her free, and
I gave the name of Marjam to her. I wanted to take her with me to Szadzsszin
where I had a stable place."
He writes as the following about the
Muslims in Hungary: There are thousands of Magrebi and Hvárezmi living here.
Hvárezmis support the king, they pretend to be Christian, but they are Muslims
really. Magrebis were only serving Christians in battles, and they openly used
the Islam (they are possible Turkic and besenyő). "When I visited the progency
of magrebis, they welcomed me with a lot of respect. I taught them for the
science of religion." ". I was there to help them practice Islam religion" We
can conclude the following from the above stated: Part of the Muslims in Hungary
was christened but they still practiced their religion in secret. Others, who
were mostly in the army, were practicing openly their traditional belief, the
Muslim. Surly they had received their privilege from the king.
Most of the Muslims in Hungary are
unqualified in the Islam religion, possible not many of them went to a Muslim
school. As the Muslim belief stacked in their soul, it wasn't easy to make them
to change their religion into Christian. Al-Garnati also thought the Islamic
legal rules of inheriting. This can be proved by the following: "Earlier they
didn't know about the Friday pray, but now I thought them the sermon too ." The
following statement characterizes the minority of the Muslims: "Nowadays many
thousands places have sermons on Fridays, openly or in secret as their country
is huge." His notes about the armed Muslims are important too: "The Basgird king
often damages the land of Byzantium. I said the following to the Muslims there:
Do everything for the Saint war with the básgird king, as God will credit you
with the result of the war on the doomsday.
They went out with him to the land of
Constantinople and they defeated twelve battalion of the Byzantium Emperor and
they caught many Muslims, Turkic from the kúnij battalion. I asked some of them:
Why did you fight in the Byzantium battalion? They said: Each one of us got 200
dinar payment for it, and we didn't know that other Muslims live in this land
(Hungary) too. I made sure, that they were transferred to the land of Byzantium
and they could go back to Kúnija." Kúnija laid in the steppe of southern Russia
and Havaselve, Moldovia. It could have been a Kipcsak nomad state, where next to
Cumanians there were many Besenyő too. This fact proves that in this area there
were a strong expansion of the Islam religion before the Mongols too. Byzantium
Emperor settled Anatolian Muslim Turkish for army service by the river of
Vardar. These Muslims have fighted against Hungarians many time. They had also
border defending function. In this period of time many many Turkish Muslim
escaped to Hungary which can be explained with that fact, that in Hungary they
could freely practice their traditional, Islam religion, and did not have to
became Christian. These soldiers were settled as border guards. In Al-garnati's
notes we can compere the situation for Muslims in Byzantium and in Hungary: "The
leader of Constantia vistied with the purpose of piece, and bought many gifts
like treasures and Muslim prisoners of war.
One of these prisoner of war, who came back from Byzantium to Hungary explained:
The king of Byzantium asked: What is the purpose of that, that the Básgird king
entered into our country and damaged it? This wasn't the way before. He got the
following answer: The king of Básgirs has a battalion of Muslim soldiers, who
can practice their own traditional religion, and they asked the king to enter
into your country to damage it. Byzantium king said the following: I have Muslim
dependants but they are no help for me in a war. The following answer was said
to him: Because you make them to became a Christian. The king answered the
following: From now on I won't make them to be Christian, I'll build mosques for
them too, so they will fight with me."
From the above mentioned we can see that Hungarian Muslim soldiers had a better
quality of life in Hungary as they could practice their own religion and
traditions. This proves that in this period, Hungary was an appealing place for
Islam immigrants. The leader of Islam nations were in a direct contact with the
king of Hungary.
Al-Garnati had a personal relationship with the king II. Géza.
Let's see some notes for this: "he
practice the same religion as Frankish, although he does war of conquest against
them and he catches prisoners of war. Many nations are terrified of his
conquests as he has large amount of soldiers and valour." "When he heard that I
forbid wine for Muslims, but allowed them to have four wives and concubines,
than he told me the following: this is not rational, wine makes the body
stronger, but women makes it weaker. I said the following: The law of Muslim is
different from Christian. Christians drink wine instead of water, and they don't
feel drunk, so it makes them stronger. Muslims only want the drunkenness. They
only want the enjoyment, and they lose their mind, they fornicate and kill. They
would sell their weapons, horses and all their wealth. These Muslims are your
soldiers, and in that case if you would order them to fight, they wouldn't have
any horses, weapons or wealth, they would have spent everything on alcohol and
enjoyment. If you would receive these information, you would have to kill them,
or would have to give them new weapons and horses, which they would spend again.
Concerning concubines and wives, it's very
suitable for Muslims since they are very heated people. Also don't forget, that
they are your soldiers and if they have wives and concubines, they can have more
babies, which means than you'll have more soldiers. The king said the following:
Listen to this old man because he is wise, get married as many time as you want.
Géza was the one, who confronted the Christian fathers and allowed concubines
While Islam was an eastern enemy for Byzantium, it was a union for Hungary. The
Muslim battalion helped the king against any (internal or external) enemies. The
kings of House of Árpád could only allow Muslims to practice their religion if
they defecated them from the law of Christian. In the same time, they defined
those obligations which Muslims had to do for the king. It sure that before the
Tatar migration and until the reign of II András the Muslims were equal with
Hungarians, in many tasks they had even more privilege.
During the reign of II Géza Islam had
its golden age in Hungary.
Yaqut Arabian lexicon writer's notes complete the notes of Al-Garnáti about
Muslims in Hungary. Yaqut met a group of the Hungarian Muslims in Aleppo in
1220, who were studying Islam. When he asked about Hungary, the Muslims said the
following: "Our country is over Constantinople in one of the Empire of Francs
nation, whose name are al -hunkar (Hungarian). We, Muslims are the subject of
their king. In one of the border we have 30 village, and each one of them is
basically a little country (town), but the king of al-hunkar doesn't let us to
build a wall around them, because he is afraid that we would rebel against him.
We are living in the middle of Christian countries. Our language is the language
of Francs, our dressing is theirs too, and we serve with them in the army. We
only fight against those who are enemies of the Muslims." According to the
notes, most of the Hungarian Muslims belonged to the Hanifita Muslim Law School.
The Hungarian Muslims clothing was the same than Hungarians and they were
speaking in Hungarian. The difference only showed in the religion. Muslim, who
did not live with their owns, assimilated.
Slow assimilation of the religion and the period of decline
Before I would show those facts, which proves the assimilation of the Muslim in
Hungary, I will introduce the golden age of the Islam. At this period of time,
the rate of the Islam, who practised their religion openly were 5-8% compering
to the population. 3-4% were practising the religion secretly. Hungarian kings
tried to follow the policy of assimilation, but many times the law for these
matters weren't or just partly been executed. As there were no real Muslim
minority living in one place, Muslim who lived in the middle of the country
could assimilate quite easily, not like the ones who lived by the border. This
jurisdiction was on going since I Saint László. This is not a coincidence, as
this is the time when the call for crusader started. Saint László was charged to
do the crusaders by the Pope, but his death came along.
In the thim of Saint László, one of his law mentions the following: "Those ones
too, who had been called as Wzbég (Üzbég)." The above mentioned nation was an
Islam Turkic army nation, who were solely serving the king. If they were in a
private serve, it had to be reported to the king. The king ordered the Üzbég
back to his service. The I Code of Law of Saint László orders as the following:
"9. About traders who are called as Islamic. If traders, who are called Islamic
would return to their traditional religion after being Christioned, should be
settled in a different village far from their old one. Those who came out
innocent from the investigation should stay at their original place." It shows
that László was only sanctioned the ones who became Christian, than returned to
the traditional religion. Muslims could practice free their own religion.
At the age of Könyves Kálmán, the crusades to Jerusalem had started, some of
them trough Hungary. That king, who firstly stated that "there are no witches",
was the first one who started the Muslim assimilation. From the First Code of
Law of Könyves Kálmán: "About sanction for the insistent of Islamic to their
traditional religion. If someone sees an Islamic to fast or keep off from food
or pork or from bathing should send the Islamic to the king, who will receive a
part from his wealth."
Fast meant the Ramadan, and as we can see, the legislatives knew the traditions
of Islam, as they even knew about the inhibition of pork in the Muslim religion.
They didn't mixed Islam to Jewish. Bathing meant the ritual bathing wich came
with praying. We know that in this age people were not neat, so it appeared if
someone was bathing several times in a day.
"About the remove of the Islamic We order in each Islamic village to build a
church, and that it should receive charity. After this church was built, half of
the Islamic village should move to another village." This shows a planned
assimilation policy, which essence is the following: with dividing the Muslim
villages, building churches, making them in a new area with Christians, makes
them to be slowly a catholic. These Muslims were only different from the
Hungarians in their traditions and religion, as they spoke the same language.
"Marriage of the Daughters of Islamic.
No one should give their daughter to a
husband from the same nation, only to our nation." Earlier Muslim girls only
could marry to a Muslim man, but Muslim men could choose a wife from the nation
of Könyves Kálmán. As the nation was patriarchal, with this law, it was ensured
that the unborn Muslims will grow up in a christened area, so the Islam wife
will have to assimilate to the new situation.
"About dining of the Islamic.
If any Islamic invites guest for a meal,
all of them should only eat pork." The king could of thought that making them
eat pork would give them a moral damage too, which could fasten the
assimilation. Pork is forbidden for Islamic. This was not true for the Jewish.
Summarizing the law of Könyves Kálmán:
He forbid the mixed marriage for Jews, and also forbid for Jews to keep a
Christian slave. He tried a total assimilation policy with Islamic. The Church
was the first who attacked the privilege of Muslims, and kept pushing the king
to urge Christianity for Muslims. Church ordered to take taxes and duty from
Muslims and give this privilege to Christians. Many Muslim in economical
position became Christian after this order, but they kept practice their
traditional belief in secret. Church wanted to take the right for charging
Muslims and Jews from the king. Because of the above mentioned there were a
conflict between the king and church. We can notify one thing: There were no
real sanction or revenge mentioned in any law, nether in any later
From the above mentioned we can see that at many Hungarian kings the king's
power prevailed. In the period before the Golden Bull the central power became
weaker, so nobles and the Church could force the king to reduce the economical
power of Islam believers or even take their position. II Andárs (1205-1235)
gradually brought a new economical policy in. It's point was to bring in a
rental system instead of redistribution of land and direct tax payment.
King's income came from the payment of the rental fee (salt, duty and rental fee
of mint). Whit this new system the Church lost some source of income and also
the non Christian believers (Muslims and Jews) became invulnerable. For these II
András was under a lot of pressure, and we should not forget that mint
practicing resorted to fall the value of money.
Basically the nobles and the Church forced
the king to back out before the start of crusade in 1217. The church started to
pay more attention to the Muslims and Jews, and the pope was informed about the
Hungarian situation too. At the same time, the Church realized slow growths in
assimilation at the Islam by the quiet evangelize.
The Hungarian Islam knew and used the patient of religion, which was a basic
element in the Islam too. I quote the 256 poem of the 2 surai from the Koran:
"There are no compulsion in religion." There were a growth in Muslim population
as they had the privilege for polygamy. Our kings laid many different laws about
the sanction for those Muslims who became Christian, but still practicing their
traditional religion secretly. The first important law, Golden Bull broke the
economical power of the Muslim.
"Against the position of chamber official for Islamic and Jews. The following
positions should be filled in with the noble of the Emperor, and not with
Islamic and Jews: bailiffs of chamber, money changers, salt traders, and tax
This was a real attack against the faithful money collectors and members of the
chamber. In the XIII century, nobles against the central power, and the Church
realized who stands for the interest of the kind. They joined with the Pope and
started a religion war against the Muslims. Middle class and serviens became
against Muslim as no one likes the money collectors and money changers. To show
how important was for the Church the economical power of Hungarian Muslims, I
show a part of IX. Gergely letter: "Saracen and Jews dominate over the
Christians, and many Christian seeing their good quality of life and freedom,
stopped being Christians. Christians marry to Saracen and the other way round
II. András did not executed consequently the order of the Church and Golden Bull
for the Muslims. This is the reason why orders against the Muslim are in the
renewal of the Golden Bull in 1231. "Against the position of officials for
Saracen and Jews. Leader position in mint, saltbay and other state office should
not be filled in with Saracen or Jews." The Golden Bull had to be renewed and
validated and as we can see its text had been changed too. The foreign
archbishop of Esztergom, Róbert used the most strict church sanction in 1232: he
took the whole country under interdictum. He explains the purpose of his actions
in a letter to bishop of Veszprém: ". the king codification of law and promised
that he will keep to it. In this law there was a part which said no Jews or
Islamic can be in a leader position of the chamber. But this law was disdained .
Even Christians became Saracen believers as they could see the better quality of
Even Samuel, the previous bailiff of chamber couldn't escape, who fall under
suspicion of heresy, and who supported and defended the Muslims. The prelate
writes about Muslims as the following: We forbid for Christians to contact
Saracen even in trade or contract or in any form, until Saracens send off all
Christened, willing to get Christened or san of Christened, who are either
Hungarian, Bulgarian, Kuhn or belonging to any other nationality, who are slaves
or living free." It can be seen, that laws of Muslim willing to isolate them.
The total isolation and forbidding contacting with Christians would of damage
and grow poor them if they had stacked to the law. But this was not enough for
the Hungarian bishops. Disaster after disaster came for Islam. In August, 1233
the Church make the old king to except the so called Bereg Agreement.
- Against the position of officials for Islamic and Jews
From now on, we don't fill the leader positions of chamber, mint, salt and duty
with Jews and Islamic. We don't fill the position next to the leaders with them.
- About distinction of Jews by a sign. We will distinct Jews and Islamic from
Christians with a sign. - Against holding Christian slaves for Jews and Islamic
We won't allow for Jews and Islamic to buy and keep Christian slaves.- About the
control of these orders We promise, that we and our progeny will send the
palatine or someone else once a year the check that these orders are kept. We
will send a Christian, who will take an oath to faithfully control the
- About the sanction of Islamic and Jews living with Christians
If we find some Christian to live with Islamic, or some Islamic who keeps
Christian slave, or Christians who came from Islamic, or Islamic who live with
Christian woman either as wife or any other way. These Christians or Jews and
pagan should be punished by taking all wealth from them, and make them eternal
slaves of the Christians. "
These law shows the pressure of the Church and that the total assimilation was
the intention. Muslims had only two choices left: being christened or the
migration. We can also see from the law, that the middle aged Islam believers
should have a large amount of wealth. The Church had the most important part in
the controlling. Béla IV asked for a dispensation from the pope for some of his
Islamic members in the chamber, as he needed their economical knowledge.
The first paragraph said, that the king will not make any Jews or Islamic in a
position of official, so Christened can not be in oppression. Will not allow
that Jews or Islamic could keep Christian slaves. He will make sure that these
people can be differed by outside signs. Those Jews, Islamic or pagan who keeps
a Christian slave or live with a Christian wife should loose their all wealth,
and the king should sell them as a slave to a Christian. The king tried to
refuse to make these orders, but after the regulation of Bereg in 1233 he
couldn't do anything else. These strict orders were born in a situation when the
states of Holy Land fought for their life against Muslims.
It's interested, that Christians waited for help form the Mongolians against
Through many centuries the Hungarian Muslims became a part of the Hungarian
nation.When the independent religion commune had ended, they assimilated to the
Hungarians in the point of population and in the point of religion into the
Christians. The Islam religion life had finally ended during the reign of I Nagy
Lajos. He damaged the last dzsámi in 1350, which was in the Nyírség. At the
appearance of reformation ex Muslims who became Christian started to support the
new. It was a long way from I Saint Stephen's letter to his sun Imre, which
mentioned the settlement of the "Guests" until the appearance of law about the
In their language and dress they were the same then Hungarians, they were only
different in their religion. Naturally their wealt made the Church and nobles
envie. Saint Stephen main task was the assimilation of the pagans into the Roman
Christianity, he had no real attention of the Jewish and Islam minorities. But
naturally the idea of the ctrusade had not appeared yet. This is how the
contemporary Muslims could stay up for many hundreds year. Hungary was the most
Western country (part from Andaluzia) where Islam believers appeared in a larde
number. Hungary laid at a cultural break line, this was the place where
Christianity met with Byzantium religion and Islam. Jews could leave more free
here than in any Western state.
Memories from these periods
The survived names of the settlements, jurisdiction text stile, coins from the
middle age, shows the presence of Muslims in the age of House of Árpád. Let's
see the surviving names of the settlements. The Muslim nation' origin was mainly
Turkish, but tere were some Iranian nations. Before the Tartar migration 210
settlement was filled with Muslims. László Réthy's work, which was published
in1880, he mentioned an important point of view. "Saracens or Islamic trader had
not disappeared from Hungary with the Tartar migration, but only assimilated to
Hungarians, and kept on going in their earlier activities. The basis of this
statement is that Jakab and János Saracenus brothers are mentioned as earls, as
chamberlain of Pécs-Szerém and Buda in a document originating from 1352. (As we
know Saracenus has the same meaning than Saracen which means the Muslim
believers.) There is a Saracen head in the coat of arms of the Mesztegne Saracen
clan, which symbol appears in many coins of Nagy Lajos.
In the silver coins period in the XII century, on the silver coins of the
Hungarian kings, Eastern affects appear: half moon, the text of God is one ("Illahi",
Allah) in Arabian letter style. In the copper coins of IV Stephen other Eastern
affects appears next to the above mentioned: The first line of the Koran (Biszmillah
al-Rahman al-Rahim, which means in the name of Merciful and Mercy).
I would like to write down some of the results of digs, which proves our
connection with Islam by the evidence of coins. - grave evidence of Szeged-kiráyhalom,
where there were coins of Ismael ben Ahmed Balkhban (906) Text of the coins:
"There is no other god then the only Allah" Round text: from the Koran, 30:3-4
- Grave evidence of Galgócz, where
there were coins of Naszr ben Ahmed (918-919).
These are szamadina origin coins, it was
in a regular use in the area of Middle-Asia in the X century. We could call it
as a world trade money as it was popular (from Middle-Europe to Altáj) Text:
"There is no god, just Allah, and he has no partners" - There were Sammanida
coins in the grave evidence of Bodrogvécs Dirhems were found in the border of
Kecskemét From the end of the reign of Nagy Lajos, for about 150 years there
were mostly just travelling traders of Muslim, but on the South border of our
country, there were the Ottoman and Turkish Empire. (
THE SITUATION OF
THE HUNGARIAN ISLAMIC COMMUNITY
Bismillah Irrahman Irrahim
HUNGARIAN ISLAMIC COMMUNITY
Róbert Károly krt. 104.
Tel./fax: +36-29 414-709
Handy: +36-30 272-9865
Main activities in 2005.
1. Indonesia The community collected and transported medicines, and
medical instruments for cunami victims. Total value of this support was 60
2. Pakistan Our community collected and transported medicines for the
earthquake victims. Total value of this support was 6 million HUF.
3. Sudan - We continued our humanitarian project in Sudan, in Darfur
region. The main issues of our project was in 2005:
We collected and transported medicines and medical instruments to the refugee
camps in Darfur region, five times in this year.
We transported a fully equipped ambulance car to our partner organization in
Sudan. Total value of these supports was approx. 200 million HUF.
We prepared to found a new hospital in Sudan. The hospital will start to work in
2006. We started our initiative work on a support program to the mine victims.
4. Slovakia We collected mo re than 1000 books for a protestant
(reformed) Hungarian community in Slovakia.
5. Hungary: We provided more than 1500 portions of food to the indigents.
We organised the first Abrahamic Religions conference. Some of Christian, Jew
and Muslim communities and churches delegated members to this conference. The
main themes of this conference were, the common values, tolerance and
We started our organised activity against the islamophobie, and discrimination
against Muslims in Hungary. Our proposal gained support from some important
actors in the Hungarian public life, especially from Zita Gurmai, representative
of European Parliament.
We established the Gül Baba price for that non-Muslims, who supported Muslims
and Islam in Hungary.
Selection from the international press
Money isn't the only way to help Sunday, 26 October 2003
Many countries that attended the Madrid Conference are not in a financial
position to pledge monetary sums to help rebuild, but that doesn't mean that
they are not willing to help : Slovak officials decided this week to chip in
$270,000 worth of medicines, blankets, food and other goods, and said they'll
consider other forms of help after the conference. Germany has pledged $58
million for direct emergency and humanitarian aid. France is providing
humanitarian help, though it has not yet said how much.
Bulgaria has committed $1 million in indirect aid to Iraq, which is to include
$340,000 in clothing, footwear, medicines, food and supplies. It will also
provide grants for Iraqi students to study at Bulgarian universities - an offer
also made by Slovakia - and provide training at the Bulgarian Police Academy for
Iraqi officers and cadets. Croatia has pledged $2.8 million in humanitarian aid
- mostly blankets, tents, sleeping bags and staple goods. Romania said it also
will offer $110,000 worth of food and medicines. The Hungarian Islamic Community
recently shipped $100,850 worth of nutritional supplements and intravenous
fluids donated by Hungarian pharmaceutical companies. The Polish Medical Mission
is gathering funds to help renovate and supply a hospital in south-central Iraq.
Latest news briefs from the Jewish Telegraphic Agency
Feb 15, 2005
Hungarian Muslim leaders laid wreaths commemorating the Holocaust at a memorial
wall at Budapest's main synagogue. Calling the event "historic," the head of the
Hungarian Islamic Community, Zoltan Bolek , said it was the first time "that
Hungarian Muslims came in an organized fashion to commemorate the victims who
were so mercilessly slaughtered," the Hungarian Telegraphic Agency reported.
(Cleveland Jewish News, OH) (
Hungarian Muslims donate vaccines to Sudan
BUDAPEST, Hungary, (AP) -- An organization of Hungarian Muslims said Monday it
would donate thousands of doses of hepatitis vaccine to aid Sudan's troubled
Darfur region. The Hungarian Islam Community said the vaccines, worth 21 million
forint (US$105,000; A?86,000), will be flown in refrigerated containers to
Khartoum, the Somali capital, later this week and then -- with help from the
Sudanese government -- to the western Darfur region. "We have made arrangements
with Red Crescent officials in Darfur who will distribute the vaccines where
they are most needed," community leader Zoltan Bolek said. Bolek said his group
obtained the vaccines from pharmaceutical companies months ago, but was unable
to cover transportation costs. DHL, a shipping company owned by Deutsche Post,
the German postal service, offered to deliver the vaccines without charge. A
violent conflict between the Sudanese government and Darfur rebels has killed
some 50,000 people and displaced some 1.4 million over the past 20 months. (
The H.I.C. has been financed, recognized and officially registered by the
state since 02/08/1988.
It represents both the Hungarian and non-Hungarian Muslims. It was under the
direction of Dr. Mihálffy Balázs Adburrahman between 1988 and 1996.And it was
registered among 63 "HOUSES OF RELIGION". The state offers us between
70.000-1.000.000 HUF yearly (3500-5000 USD). During our work we managed to have
important connections like:
- The Prime Minister Office
- The ministry of foreign affairs
- The Parliament
- The parliament parties
- Town halls
- Other religions houses
- Hospitals and others
The Hungarian official executives help us and do their best to make us wider
relations here and abroad. We are the bridge between the foreign Muslim
countries and the local Muslims.
The Hungarian Islamic Community would like raising the necessary funds for:
- Expenses of mosque
- Give financial assistance to refugees (from Iraq, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Algir
- Social help for Hungarian poor unemployed Muslims
- Translation of books
- Print Islamic books
- Prepare children for kindergarten and school
This is the reason why we will be the business and commercial mediator between
of Islam World and Hungary.
We can offer the next objects for Muslim businessman:
- Household honey
- Household jam
- Porcelain, ceramics
- Popular and applied art objects (included horseback)
- Medicinal water tourism
Gül Baba (poet)
A statue of Gül Baba outside his mausoleum in Budapest.Gül Baba (also known
as Cafer; died 1541) was an Ottoman Bektashi dervish poet and companion of
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent who took part in a number of campaigns in Europe
from the reign of Mehmed II onwards.
A native of Merzifon (Marsiwān, in the vilāyet of Sivas), he was the son of
Kutb’ül Arifin Veli’üddin Ýbn Yalýnkýlýç. In Hungary, Gül Baba is known as the
"Father of Roses" and is said to have introduced the flower to the country.
However, this is probably a misunderstanding of the metaphorical use of the term
which most likely refers to the dervish's status derived from his deep mystical
knowledge of Allah, which made him a notably "fragrant" member of his order. The
name could also be a corruption of Kel Baba, meaning "Bald Father".
The tomb of Gül Baba in Budapest.
Gül Baba is thought to have died in Buda
during the first Muslim religious ceremony held after the Ottoman victory of
1541, or alternatively to have been killed during fighting below the walls of
the city on August 21, 1541. Suleiman, who was also Caliph, declared him patron
saint of the city and is reputed to have been one of the coffin bearers.
Gül Baba's octagonal tomb (türbe) is located on Mecset (mosque) Street,
Budapest, a short but steep walk from the Margaret Bridge in the district of
Rózsadomb. It was built by Ottoman authorities in Hungary between 1543 and 1548,
on the orders of the third pasha of Buda, and has a shallow dome covered with
lead plates and wooden tiles. It was left undamaged when the Habsburg armies
captured the area during the Second Battle of Buda in 1686, but was converted
into a Roman Catholic chapel by the Jesuits, who renamed it "St. Joseph's
Chapel". His Descendant are marzioglu Family. This family were the pashas of
The land later came under the ownership of János Wagner, who maintained the site
and allowed access to Muslim pilgrims coming from the Ottoman Empire (see Islam
in Hungary). In 1885, the Ottoman government commissioned a Hungarian engineer
to restore the tomb and, when work was completed in 1914, it was declared a
national monument. The site was restored again in the 1960s and ultimately in
the 1990s and is now the property of the Republic of Turkey.
URL: www.iszlam.net Phone: 36-1-2091795
Iszlam Alapitvany, Miskolc, B.-A.-Z.
URL: www.iszlam.net Phone: 0036705211878
Association for Cultural Exchange in Hungary, Budapest
Kulturalis Alapitvany, Section for Gentlemen, Budapest
URL: www.salam.hu Phone: 06-70-3112721
Hodmezovasarhely Vasutallomas, Casongrad
the Muslim students of Debrecen, Debrecen, HUNGARY
Haza Kulturalis Alapitvany, Szigetszentmiklos
Magyarországi Muszlimok Egyháza, Budapest
URL: www.iszlamegyhaz.net Phone: 36-20-2045852
Jakovali Hassan, Pecs
URL: www.iszlamegyhaz.net Phone: 0036-1-2084040
Iszlám Közösség, Budapest
URL: magyariszlam.hu Phone: 00-36-30-272-9865
Iszlam Alapitvany, Miskolc
Alsalam mosque, Budapest
Jakovali Hassan, Pecs
Malkutch Bey, Siklos
Community and Information Center, Budapest Fovaros
Cultural Trust of Hungary - Camlica Mosque, Budapest
Iszlám Közösség, Budapest
Magyarországi Muszlimok Egyháza, Budapest
Magyarországi Muszlimok Egyháza, Szigetvar
Magyarországi Muszlimok Egyháza, Budapest-Kelenfold Palyaudvar
of the Muslim students of Debrecen, Debrecen
toll Alapítvány, Nyiregyhaza
Pharaohs' Egyptian-Hungarian Cultural Trust, Budapest
Kulturalis Alapitvany, Section for Gentlemen, Budapest
Szobája Hitgyülekezet, Miskolc
Iszlam Kulturalis Kapcsolatteremto Alapitvany, Tatabanya
of Dialogue, Budapest
Islamic Cultural Foundation, Budapest Fovaros
Muslim Association for Cultural Exchange in Hungary, Budapest
Foundation Islamic Weekend School, Budapest
Muslim Owned Business
ELELMISZER( TURKISH STORE FOR ISLAMIC FOOD AND MEAT ( HALAL), Szeged
Gondolkodas Haza Kulturalis Alapitvany, Szigetszentmiklos
FOGASZAT-DENTAL CLINIC, Budapest Fovaros
Turkish Carpet Showroom, Budapest
Medical Centre, Budapest
fuszer es elemiszer bolt, Debrecen
restaurent (halal), Budapest
Persian Halal Meat and Oriental Food, Budapest
Shahi Pakistani Restaurant and take away, Budapest
at the Star Kebab Restaurant, Budapest
man, Hodmezovasarhely Vasutallomas
المواد الغذائية الشرقيه الاسلامية, Szeged
Islam in Hungary (
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Hungary , October, 2008).
Info please (
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107620.html , October, 2008).
Islam Finder (
World Religions Statistics (
http://www.adherents.com/adhloc/xx , October, 2008).
Anonymous, Documents from Representatives of Islamic Organizations in Hungary,