ISLAM and MUSLIMS IN ITALY

      

General Information

Italian Republic

National name: Repubblica Italiana

Land area: 113,521 sq mi (294,019 sq km); total area: 116,305 sq mi (301,230 sq km)

Population (2008 est.): 58,145,321

Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Rome, 3,550,900 (metro. area), 2,455,600 (city proper)

Other large cities: Milan, 1,180,700; Naples, 991,700; Turin, 856,000; Palermo, 651,500; Genoa, 602,500; Bologna, 369,300; Florence, 351,600; Bari, 311,900; Catania, 305,900; Venice, 265,700

Monetary unit: Euro (formerly lira)

Languages: Italian (official); German-, French-, and Slovene-speaking minorities

Ethnicity/race: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian- and Greek-Italians in the south)

Religions: Roman Catholic approx. 90%, Protestant, Jewish, Islamic

National Holiday: Republic Day, June 2

Literacy rate: 99% (2003 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2007 est.): $1.786 trillion; per capita $30,400. Real growth rate: 1.5%. Inflation: 2%.

Italy, slightly larger than Arizona, is a long peninsula shaped like a boot, surrounded on the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea and on the east by the Adriatic. It is bounded by France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia to the north. The Apennine Mountains form the peninsula's backbone; the Alps form its northern boundary. The largest of its many northern lakes is Garda (143 sq mi; 370 sq km); the Po, its principal river, flows from the Alps on Italy's western border and crosses the Lombard plain to the Adriatic Sea. Several islands form part of Italy; the largest are Sicily (9,926 sq mi; 25,708 sq km) and Sardinia (9,301 sq mi; 24,090 sq km).

The migrations of Indo-European peoples into Italy probably began about 2000 B.C. and continued down to 1000 B.C. From about the 9th century B.C. until it was overthrown by the Romans in the 3rd century B.C., the Etruscan civilization dominated the area. By 264 B.C. all Italy south of Cisalpine Gaul was under the leadership of Rome. For the next seven centuries, until the barbarian invasions destroyed the western Roman Empire in the 4th and 5th centuries A.D., the history of Italy is largely the history of Rome. From 800 on, the Holy Roman Emperors, Roman Catholic popes, Normans, and Saracens all vied for control over various segments of the Italian peninsula. Numerous city-states, such as Venice and Genoa, whose political and commercial rivalries were intense, and many small principalities flourished in the late Middle Ages. Although Italy remained politically fragmented for centuries, it became the cultural center of the Western world from the 13th to the 16th century.

In 1713, after the War of the Spanish Succession, Milan, Naples, and Sardinia were handed over to the Hapsburgs of Austria, which lost some of its Italian territories in 1735. After 1800, Italy was unified by Napoléon, who crowned himself king of Italy in 1805; but with the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Austria once again became the dominant power in a disunited Italy. Austrian armies crushed Italian uprisings in 1820–1821 and 1831. In the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini, a brilliant liberal nationalist, organized the Risorgimento (Resurrection), which laid the foundation for Italian unity. Disappointed Italian patriots looked to the House of Savoy for leadership. Count Camille di Cavour (1810–1861), prime minister of Sardinia in 1852 and the architect of a united Italy, joined England and France in the Crimean War (1853–1856), and in 1859 helped France in a war against Austria, thereby obtaining Lombardy. By plebiscite in 1860, Modena, Parma, Tuscany, and the Romagna voted to join Sardinia. In 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Sicily and Naples and turned them over to Sardinia. Victor Emmanuel II, king of Sardinia, was proclaimed king of Italy in 1861. The annexation of Venetia in 1866 and of papal Rome in 1870 marked the complete unification of peninsular Italy into one nation under a constitutional monarchy.

Italy declared its neutrality upon the outbreak of World War I on the grounds that Germany had embarked upon an offensive war. In 1915, Italy entered the war on the side of the Allies but obtained less territory than it expected in the postwar settlement. Benito (“Il Duce”) Mussolini, a former Socialist, organized discontented Italians in 1919 into the Fascist Party to “rescue Italy from Bolshevism.” He led his Black Shirts in a march on Rome and, on Oct. 28, 1922, became prime minister. He transformed Italy into a dictatorship, embarking on an expansionist foreign policy with the invasion and annexation of Ethiopia in 1935 and allying himself with Adolf Hitler in the Rome-Berlin Axis in 1936. When the Allies invaded Italy in 1943, Mussolini's dictatorship collapsed; he was executed by partisans on April 28, 1945, at Dongo on Lake Como. Following the armistice with the Allies (Sept. 3, 1943), Italy joined the war against Germany as a cobelligerent. A June 1946 plebiscite rejected monarchy and a republic was proclaimed. The peace treaty of Sept. 15, 1947, required Italian renunciation of all claims in Ethiopia and Greece and the cession of the Dodecanese islands to Greece and of five small Alpine areas to France. The Trieste area west of the new Yugoslav territory was made a free territory (until 1954, when the city and a 90-square-mile zone were transferred to Italy and the rest to Yugoslavia).

Italy became an integral member of NATO and the European Economic Community (later the EU) as it successfully rebuilt its postwar economy. A prolonged outbreak of terrorist activities by the left-wing Red Brigades threatened domestic stability in the 1970s, but by the early 1980s the terrorist groups had been suppressed. “Revolving door” governments, political instability, scandal, and corruption characterized Italian politics in the 1980s and 1990s.

Islamic History and Muslims

The history of Islam in Italy dates back to the 7th and 8th centuries, when some of the Lombards, a Germanic people that ruled parts of northern Italy, converted from Arianism to Islam instead of to Catholicism. In the 9th century, wars of expansion by North African states brought Sicily and some regions in Peninsular Italy into the Ummah. There were Muslim domains in these parts of Italy from 828 (Muslim conquest of Sicily) to 1300 (destruction of the last Islamic stronghold of Lucera in Puglia). Thereafter, until the 1970s Islam was almost entirely absent in Italy.

In the 1970s, the first trickle of North African immigrants began arriving. At first, most of the Muslim immigrants came from Morocco. Muslims also arrived from Albania. In more recent years there has been migration from Egypt, Tunisia, Senegal, Somalia, Pakistan. Today there are approximately one million Muslims in Italy, of whom around 50,000 have Italian citizenship.

Islam is not formally recognized by the state in Italy despite being the second largest faith after Catholicism. Other religions including Judaism and smaller groups such as the Assemblies of God and the Seventh-Day Adventists do enjoy official recognition in the form of signed agreements with the Italian government. Official recognition gives an organized religion a chance to benefit from a national "religion tax", known as the Eight per thousand.

Most of the above mentioned Lombard converts, known in Arabic as al-Ankubarti, served as mercenaries in armies of states of the African Mediterranean coast, especially in Ifriqiya.

The Italian island of Pantelleria (which lies between the western tip of Sicily and north Africa) was conquered by the Arabs in 700. The first Arabian attacks on Byzantine Sicily in 652, 667 and 720 failed; Syracuse in the eastern end of the island was occupied for the first time temporarily in 708, but a planned invasion in 740 failed due to a rebellion of the Berbers of the Maghreb that lasted until 771 and civil wars in Ifriqiya lasting until 799. Arabian attacks on the island of Sardinia, less important than those on Sicily, failed to achieve its conquest although they induced its separation from the Byzantine Empire, giving birth to a period of Sardinian independence, the era of the giudicati.The magistrate of Sicily, who rebelled against the Byzantine Empire, had called on the Muslims (named Saracens by the Europeans) for help. To end the constant mutinies of his army, the Aghlabid magistrate of Ifriqiya sent Arabian, Berber, and Andalusian rebels to conquer Sicily in 827, 830 and 875, led by, amongst others, Asad ibn al-Furat. Palermo fell to them in 831, followed by Messina in 843, Syracuse in 878. In 902 the Ifriqiyan magistrate himself led an army against the island, seizing Taormina in 902. Reggio Calabria on the mainland fell in 918, and in 964 Rometta, the last remaining Byzantine toehold on Sicily.

Under the Arabs, agriculture in Sicily prospered and became export oriented. Arts and crafts flourished in the cities. Palermo, the Arabian capital of the island, had 300,000 inhabitants at that time, more than all the cities of Germany combined. At the beginning of the 11th century, Muslims made up half of the population of Sicily, with Arabs dominating the north of the island around Palermo and the Berbers predominating in the area around Agrigento in the south.

From Sicily, the Muslims launched attacks on the mainland and devastated Calabria. In 835 and again in 837, the Duke of Naples was fighting against the Duke of Benevento and appealed to the Sicilian Muslims for help. In 840 Taranto and Bari fell to the Muslims, and in 841 Brindisi. Capua was destroyed. Benevento, under Frankish protection at that time, was occupied 840-847 and again in 851-52. Arab attacks on Rome failed in 843, 846 and 849. In 847 Taranto, Bari and Brindisi declared themselves emirates independent from the Aghlabids. For decades the Muslims ruled the Mediterranean and attacked the Italian coastal towns. Arabs occupied Ragusa in Sicily between 868 and 870.

Only after the fall of Malta in 870 did the occidental Christians succeeded in setting up an army capable of fighting the Muslims. Over the next two decades, most of the mainland was freed from Muslim rule. The Franco-Roman emperor Louis II conquered Brindisi and beat the Arabs at Bari in 871, but then fell captive to the Aghlabids. In his stead the Byzantines conquered Taranto in 880. A small number of Arabian strongholds in the south lasted until 885, for example Santa Severina Crotone in Calabria. In 882 the Muslims had founded at the mouth of Garigliano River between Naples and Rome a new base further in the north, which was in league with Gaeta, and had attacked Campania as well as Sabinia in Lazio. A hundred years later the Byzantines called the Sicilian Arabs for support against a campaign of German emperor Otto II. They beat Otto at Taranto in 982 in the battle at Crotone and in the next 200 years largely succeeded in preventing his successors from entering southern Italy.

In 1002 Bari was again conquered by the Arabs, but was soon recaptured by the Byzantines. Melus (Melo), Emir of Bari 1009–1019, stood up against the Byzantines and called the Normans for help. Melus, of Lombard-Arabic origin, is depicted as Ismahel (Ismail) on the gold-embroidered "Sternenmantel" he gave to German emperor Henry II.

After the Aghlabids were defeated in Ifriqiya as well, Sicily fell in the 10th century to their Fatimid successors, but claimed independence after fights between Sunni and Shia Muslims under the Kalbids.

After they had conquered the Visigoth empire in Spain, the Arabs and Berbers 729-765 from Septimania and Narbonne carried out raids into northern Italy, and in 793 again invaded southern France (Nice 813, 859 and 880). In 888 Andalusian Muslims set up a new base in Fraxinet near Frejus in French Provence, from where they started raids along the coast and in inner France.

In 915, after the Battle of Garigliano, the Muslims lost their base in southern Lazio. In 926 King Hugh of Italy called the Arabs to fight against his northern Italian rivals. In 934 and 935 Genoa and La Spezia were attacked, followed by Nice in 942. In Piedmont the Muslims got as far as Asti and Novi, moving northwards along the Rhône valley and the western flank of the Alps. After defeating Burgundian troops, in 942-964 they conquered Savoy and occupied a part of Switzerland (952-960). Swiss town names such as Saaz still mark the Arabic presence in the area. To fight the Arabs, Emperor Berengar I, Hugh’s rival, called the Hungarians, who in their turn devastated northern Italy. Under the pressure of German kings, Fraxinet had to be given up in 972, but thirty years later, in 1002, Genoa was invaded, and in 1004 Pisa.

Pisa und Genoa joined forces to end Muslim rule over Corsica (Islamic 810/850-930/1020) and Sardinia. From 1015 on, Sardinia was protected by the fleet of the Andalusian Emir of Dénia in Spain, who was defeated by allied Italians in 1016 and again after his invasion in 1022. Only in 1027 did the Italians succeeded in defeating the Sardinian Muslims for good; the last Muslim upheaval ended in 1050.

The cultural and economical bloom in Sicily that had started under the Kalbids was interrupted by internecine fights, followed by invasions by the Tunisian Zirids (1027), Pisa (1030–1035), and the Byzantines (1027 onwards). Eastern Sicily (Messina, Syracuse and Taormina) was captured by the Byzantines in 1038–1042. In 1059 Normans from southern Italy, led by Roger I, invaded the island. The Normans conquered Reggio in 1060 (conquered by the Byzantines in 1027). Messina fell to the Normans in 1061; an invasion by the Algerian Hammadids to preserve Islamic rule was thwarted in 1063 by the fleets of Genoa and Pisa. The loss of Palermo in 1072 and of Syracuse in 1088 could not be prevented. Noto and the last Muslim strongholds on Sicily fell in 1091. In 1090-91 the Normans also conquered Malta; Pantelleria fell in 1123.

A sizable Muslim population remained on Sicily under the Normans. The Roger II hosted at his court, among others, the famous geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi and the poet Muhammad ibn Zafar. At first, Muslims were tolerated by the Normans, but soon pressure from the Popes led to their increasing discrimination; most mosques were destroyed or made into churches. The first Sicilian Normans did not take part in the Crusades, but they undertook a number of invasions and raids in Ifriqiya, before they were defeated there after 1157 by the Almohads.

The peaceful coexistence in Sicily finally ended with the death of King William II in 1189. The Muslim elite emigrated at that time. Their medical knowledge was preserved in the Schola Medica Salernitana; an Arabian-Byzantine-Norman synthesis in art and architecture survived as Sicilian Romanesque. The remaining Muslims fled, for example to Caltagirone on Sicily, or hid out in the mountains and continued to resist against the Hohenstaufen dynasty, who ruled the island from 1194 on. In the heartland of the island, the Muslims pronounced Ibn Abbad the last Emir of Sicily.

To end this upheaval, emperor Frederick II, himself a Crusader, instigated a policy to rid Sicily of the few remaining Muslims. This cleansing was done in small part under Papal influence but mostly in order to create a loyal force of troops which could not be influenced by non-Christian infiltrators. In 1224–1239 he deported every single Muslim from Sicily to an autonomous colony under strict military control (so that they could not infiltrate non-Muslim areas) in Lucera in Apulia. In 1249 he ejected the Muslims from Malta as well. Lucera was returned to the Christians in 1300 at the instigation of the pope by King Charles II of Naples. All the Muslims were killed or expelled Europe.

During this century, the Ottoman Empire was expanding mightily in southeastern Europe. It completed the absorption of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 under Sultan Mehmet II by conquering Constantinople and Galata. It seized Genoa's last bastions in the Black Sea in 1475 and Venice's Greek colony of Euboea in 1479. Turkish troops invaded the Friuli region in northeastern Italy in 1479 and again in 1499–1503. The Apulian harbor town of Otranto, located about 100 kilometers southeast of Brindisi, was seized in 1480, but the Turks were routed there in 1481 when Mehmet died and a war for his succession broke out. Cem, pretender to the Ottoman throne, was defeated despite being supported by the pope; he fled with his family to the Kingdom of Naples, where his male descendants were bestowed with the title of Principe de Sayd by the Pope in 1492. They lived in Naples until the 17th century and in Sicily until 1668 before relocating to Malta.

It is a subject of debate whether Otranto was meant to be the base for further conquests. In any case, the Ottoman sultans had not given up their ambition to end Christianity in Rome and to install Islamic sovereignty. After the conquests of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Hungary in 1526 and the defeat of the Turkish army at Vienna in 1529, Turkish fleets again attacked southern Italy. In 1512 and 1526 the Ottomans conquered Reggio and in 1537 more of Calabria and in 1538 they defeated the Venetian Fleet. In 1539 Nice was raided by the Barbary states (Siege of Nice), but an attempted Turkish landing on Sicily failed, as did the attempted conquest of Pantelleria in 1553 and the siege of Malta in 1565.

Next to Spain, the biggest contribution to the victory of the Christian "Holy League" in the battle of Lepanto in 1571 was made by the Republic of Venice, which between 1423 and 1718 fought eight costly wars against the Ottoman Empire.

According to latest Italian official statistics, Muslims make up about 34% of the 2,400,000 foreign residents living in Italy as of January, 1, 2005. To these 820,000 foreign residents of Muslim heritage legally residing in Italy, another 100,000-150,000 should be added, as Muslims represent, according to annual estimates by the Italian association Caritas, about 40% of Italy's illegal immigrants.

Despite illegal immigrants representing a minority of the Muslim presence in Italy, the issue of Islam in contemporary Italy has been linked by some political parties (particularly the 'Northern League' or 'Lega Lombarda') with immigration, and more specifically illegal immigration. Immigration has become a prominent political issue, as reports of boatloads of illegal immigrants or clandestini dominate news programmes, especially in the summertime. Police forces have not had great success in intercepting many of the thousands of clandestini who land on Italian beaches, mainly because of the sheer length of the Italian coastline, some 8,000 km in total. However, many of the clandestini landing in Italy are only using Italy as a gateway to other EU nations, due to the fact Italy offers fewer economic opportunities for them than Germany or France, and because among the clandestini Italian society has a reputaton of being more hostile to them.

The number of foreign Muslims who have been granted Italian nationality is estimated between 30,000 and 50,000, while Italian converts to Islam are estimated to number less than 10,000. Therefore, in 2005 the number of Muslims living in Italy is estimated to be between 960,000 and 1,030,000.

Muslims represent today 1.4% of Italy's population, a percentage much lower than that of other major EU countries, and still slightly lower than that recorded in Italy between the middle of the 9th century and the end of the 13th century, before the removal of the last Muslim strongholds in Puglia in 1300.

While in Medieval times the Muslim population was almost totally concentrated in Insular (Sicily, Sardinia) and Southern (Calabria, Puglia) Italy, it is today more evenly distributed, with almost 55% of Muslims living in the North of Italy, 25% in the Centre, and only 20% in the South. Muslims form a lower proportion of immigrants then in previous years, as the latest statistical reports by the Italian Ministry of Interior and Caritas indicate that the share of Muslims among new immigrants has declined from over 50% at the beginning of the 1990s (mainly Albanians and Moroccans) to less than 25% in the following decade.

Recent points of contention between native Italians and the Muslim immigrant population include the presence of crucifixes in public buildings including school classrooms, government offices, and hospital wards. Adel Smith has attracted considerable media attention by demanding that crucifixes in public facilities be removed. The Italian Council of State, in the Sentence No. 556, 13 February 2006, confirmed the display of the crucifix in government sponsored spaces. Smith was subsequently charged with defaming the Catholic religion in 2006.


Mosques

There have been a number of cases of extraordinary rendition of Muslim activists as well as attempts by the current government to close mosques. In September 2008 the Northern League was reported to have introduced a new bill which would block the construction of new mosques in much of the country. The construction of mosques has already been blocked in Milan. The government argues that Muslims can "pray anywhere" and don't need a mosque.


Organisations

A minority of Italian Muslims belong to religious associations, the best known of which are:

- AMI, Assemblea Musulmana d'Italia (Italian Muslim Assembly and the Cultural Institute of the Italian Islamic Community)
- CCII, Centro Culturale Islamico d'Italia (Islamic Cultural Center in Rome), which has its seat what is reputed to be the largest mosque in Europe

- CO.RE.IS, Comunità Religiosa Islamica (Islamic Religious Community) in Milan
- UMI, Unione dei musulmani d'Italia (Union of Italian Muslims), led by Adel Smith

Grand Mosque, Rome, Italy


 

History of Islam in southern Italy

Islamic dress controversy in Europe

A rising tide of Muslims in Italy puts pressure on Catholic culture | csmonitor.com

Milan mosque 'to be closed down'

Italy's right to curb Islam with mosque law

 Italian Muslim Assembly website

The Grand Mosque of Rome and Islamic Cultural Centre

Wikipedia article 'Moschea di Roma'

COREIS website

Islam and Muslims in Italy

  Islamic Centers and Organizations

   Acii, Rome
  AL HODA, Italie
  Al huda islamic center, Pioltello
  Al Manar Islamic society, Rome
  Al-arqam MOSQUE, Barletta
  Al-huda MOSQUE, Rome
  Alfath Masjed, Lecce Nei Marsi
  ALHUDA, San Giorgio In Bosco
  ALLEANZA ISLAMICA D'ITALIA, Milano
  ALRAHMAN MOSQUE - MUSLIM CENTER OF MILAN, Segrate
  An-Nur, Centro di cultura Islamica di Rimini, Rimini
  ASSOCIATION NAJAH, ROVIGO
  Associazione Assalam, Viadana
  Associazione Comunità dei Mussulmani di Asti, Asti
  Associazione Culturale, Sassuolo
  Associazione Culturale ALHIDAYA, Carpenedolo
  ASSOCIAZIONE CULTURALE ISLAMICA, Rome
  Associazione culturale islamica MADNI DAR-UL-ISLAM, Lumezzane
  Associazione Culturale Islamica di Como e Provincia, Como
  Associazione Culturale Islamica di Sesto Calende (Va), Varese
  Associazione Culturale Islamica in Italia Moschea Al-Huda, Roma
  Associazione Culturale Pace Bolzano, Bolzano
  Associazione islamica di corigliano calabro, Corigliano Calabro
  ASSOCIAZIONE ISLAMICA DI FIRENZE, Firenze-Santa-Maria-Novella
  Associazione Pace Immigrati Alto Adige ONLUS, Merano
  associazzione al falah di bassa padovana, Padova
  Baraca islamic centre, Pescara
  BMC - BOLOGNA MUSLIM CENTER, Bologna
  Casa del cultura islamica, Ancona
  Casa Della Cultura Islamica, Milan
  Casa della cultura islamica, Miano
  Casa della Cultura Islamica, Milano
  CCIA, Asti
  center cultura islamec al fager, Chiusi
  CENTER CULTURAL MUSLIM, SANREMO
  CENTER CULTURAL MUSLIM, HILL OF VAL Of ELSA
  Centro C.islamico, Avezzano
  CENTRO CARNE ISLAMICO, Abbiategrasso
  centro cultolare islamico onlus, Martinengo
  Centro cultrale islamico di grosseto, Grosseto
  centro culturale ennour, Fidenza
  centro culturale islamica -biella, Biella
  centro culturale islamico, Fiorenzuola D'Arda
  Centro Culturale Islamico, Ivrea
  Centro culturale Islamico AL HUDA Jesi(AN), Jesi
  CENTRO CULTURALE ISLAMICO ANNABAOUI, Modena
  centro culturale islamico della valsugana, Borgo Valsugana
  Centro Culturale Islamico di Bari (Islamic Center), Bari
  CENTRO CULTURALE ISLAMICO DI BERGAMO, Bergamo
 
Centro Culturale Islamico di Bolzano, Bolzano

  centro culturale islamico di Fabriano, Fabriano
  Centro Culturale Islamico di Forli, Forli
  CENTRO CULTURALE ISLAMICO DI GALLARATE ONLUS, Gallarate
  CENTRO CULTURALE ISLAMICO DI GALLARATE ONLUS, Varese
  Centro Culturale Islamico di Italia, Rome
  CENTRO CULTURALE ISLAMICO DI NOVENTA VICENTINA, Noventa Vicentina
  CENTRO CULTURALE ISLAMICO DI PISA, Pisa
  Centro Culturale Islamico Di Santhià, Vercelli
  centro culturale islamico di sassari, Sassari
  CENTRO CULTURALE ISLAMICO DI TRIESTE, Trieste
  Centro culturale islamico di valdera, Pisa
  centro culturale islamico firdaus, Lonigo
  CENTRO CULTURALE ISLAMICO LA SPERANZA, Cremona
  CENTRO CULTURALE ISLAMICO MONTEGRANARO, Montegranaro
  Centro culturale islamico savonese, Liguria
  centro culturale italiano a torino, Torino-Porta-Nuova
  centro culturale TADAMON , Langhirano
  Centro di Cultura e di Studi Islamici della romagna, Ravenna
  Centro Di Cultura Islamica Del Piceno, Ascoli
  Centro di cultura islamica di ferrara e provincia, Ferrera
  CENTRO DI CULTURA ISLAMICA DI FERRARA E PROVINCIA, Ferrara
  Centro Islamico, Lecce
  CENTRO ISLAMICO, CORRIDONIA(MC)
  Centro Islamico, Avezzano
  centro islamico culturali, Ancona
  centro islamico dar assalem, Martinsicuro
  centro islamico di bologna, Bologna Centrale
  centro islamico di crema, Crema
  CENTRO ISLAMICO DI MANTOVA, Mantova
  Centro Islamico di milano e lombardia, Miano
  CENTRO ISLAMICO DI PAVIA, Pavia
  Centro islamico di sasso marconi(borgonuovo), Bologna
  Centro islamico di umbertibe(masjid ar-rahman), Umbertide
  CENTRO ISLAMICO EL FATH ROMA E LAZIO, Roma
  Centro Islamico ENNOUR, Andria
  centro islamico la pace, Bassano Del Grappa
  Centro Islamico Portogruaro (Ass. ATLAS), Portogruaro
  centro islamico reggio emilia e provincia, Reggio Emilia
  Centro Mecca Interculturale - مسجد ومركز مكة, Torino
  Centro Mecca Interculturale - مسجد ومركز مكة, Turin
  CENTRO RECREATIVO CUMUNITA MUSSULMANA, Spinetta Marengo
  Centro TAIBA, Turin
  comunita islamica, MODENA
  Comunita Islamica Di Firenze E Toscana, Florence
  Comunita Musulmana Massa Carrara, Massa
  comunita' dei musulmani della liguria, Savona
  Comunità Islamica delle Valli del Taro e del Ceno, Fornovo Di Taro
  Comunità islamica di firenze e toscana., Firenze-Santa-Maria-Novella
  Comunità islamica di Parma e provincia, Parma
 
consiglio islamico di verona, Verona

Consiglio Islamico Italiano, Cosenza
  CULTURAL CENTER MUSLIM, Santhia
  CULTURAL CENTER MUSLIM, PISA (DEVOUT)
  CULTURAL CENTER MUSLIM, PRAISES
  CULTURAL CENTER MUSLIM, HATRED (AT)
  Cultural Center of Arabo al Farabi, Palermo
  CULTURAL INSTITUTE MUSLIM ICI, PIEVE EMANUELE
  CULTURAL MUSLIM CENTER, REGGIO CALABRIA
  CULTURAL MUSLIM CENTER OF ITALY, Rome
  Dar-assalam mosque, religiose & cultural association, Pavia
  El barraka, Torre De' Passeri
  Federation of Islamic Organisations in Europe, Mariano
  GRAND MOSQUE /MOSCHEA GRANDE di Roma, Rome
  IMAM BUKHARI MOSQUE, Naples
  INSTITUTE MUSLIM D' ITALY -THE MOSQUE OF PEACE, Turin
  International Islamic Cultural Organisation, Mestre
  Islamic Center, Treviso
  Islamic Center, Dro
  Islamic Center, Piadena
  Islamic Center, Perugia
  Islamic Center, Rovereto
  Islamic Center, Roma
  Islamic Center, Curno
  Islamic Center, Rimini
  Islamic Center, Cornuda
  Islamic Center, Roma
  Islamic Center, Ferrara
  Islamic Center, Firenze
  Islamic Center, Genova
  Islamic Center, Rimini
  Islamic Center, Imola
  Islamic Center, La Spezia
  Islamic Center, Latina
  Islamic Center, Lodi
  Islamic Center, Rho
  Islamic Center, Messina
  Islamic Center, Guidizzolo
  Islamic Center, Frosinone
  Islamic Center, Roncadelle
  Islamic Center, Ravenna
  Islamic Center, Faenza
  Islamic Center, Catania
  Islamic Center, Cengio
  Islamic Center, Arzignano
  Islamic Center, Asti
  Islamic Center, Aversa
  Islamic Center, Badia Polesine
  Islamic Center, Acqui Terme
  Islamic Center, Alba
  Islamic Center, Vigevano
  Islamic Center, Trino
  Islamic Center, Trento
  Islamic Center, Torino
  Islamic Center, Torino
  Islamic Center, Santa Croce
  Islamic Center, Savona
  Islamic Center, Arcole
  Islamic Center, Alessandria
  Islamic Center, Cesena
  Islamic Center, Sassuolo
  Islamic Center, Citta di Castello
  Islamic Center, Cles
  Islamic Center, Casale Monferrato
  Islamic Center, Caserta
  Islamic Center, Cassella
  Islamic Center, Catania
  Islamic Center, Carrara
  Islamic Center, Carpi
  Islamic Center, Sassuolo
  Islamic Center, Barletta
  Islamic Center, Albenga
  Islamic Center, Scafati
  Islamic Center, Napoli
  Islamic Center, Schio
  Islamic Center, Novi Ligure
  Islamic center, Magenta
  Islamic Center, Vittoria
  Islamic Center, Napoli
  Islamic Center, Bagnoli di Sopra
  Islamic Center, Padova
  Islamic Center, Napoli
  Islamic Center, Imperia
  Islamic Center, Nizza Monferrato
  Islamic Center, San Remo
  Islamic Center, Napoli
  Islamic Center, Napoli
  Islamic Center, Novara
  Islamic Center, Palermo
  Islamic Center, Palermo
  Islamic Center, Palermo
  Islamic Center, Piacenza
  Islamic Center, Gambara
  Islamic Center, Palermo
  Islamic Center, Perugia
  Islamic Center (Capannori), Lucca
  Islamic Center of Abruzzo, Teramo
  Islamic Center of Lombardia, Segrate
  Islamic Center of Manar, Roma
  Islamic center of Modica, Modica
  Islamic Center, Asti, Asti
Islamic Cultural Association, Fornacette
  Islamic Cultural Association, Ceva
  Islamic Cultural Association, Foligno
  Islamic Cultural Association, Creazzo
  Islamic Cultural Association, Vittoria
  Islamic Cultural Association, Calcinato
  Islamic Cultural Association, Borgoricco
  Islamic Cultural Association, Como
  Islamic Cultural Association, Casale Monferrato
  Islamic Cultural Association, Borgomanero
  Islamic Cultural Association, Poggibonsi
  Islamic Cultural Association, Vobarno
  Islamic Cultural Association, Reggio Emilia
  Islamic Cultural Association, Agrigento
  Islamic Cultural Association, Avenza
  Islamic Cultural Association, Tortona
  Islamic Cultural Association, Bazzano
  Islamic Cultural Association, Omegna
  Islamic Cultural Association, Livorno
  Islamic Cultural Association, Barletta
  Islamic Cultural Association fossombrone, Urbino
  Islamic Cultural Center, Marsciano
  Islamic Cultural Center, Reggio di Calabria
  Islamic Cultural Center, Cordenons
  Islamic Cultural Center, Marola
  Islamic Cultural Center, Lodi
  Islamic Cultural Center, Bologna
  Islamic Cultural Center.centro di cultura islamica di bologna, Bologna
  Islamic Cultural Institute, Rimini
  Islamic Cultural Institute, Prata
  Islamic culturale center di milano, MILAN
  Islamic Institute of Italy, Torino
  Islamic Society, Desio
  istituto culturale islamico, Ostia Lido
  Istituto culturale islamico, Milan
  istituto culturale islamico toscano, Pisa
  Istituto islamico d italia -Mosche della Pace, Torino
  Italian Islamic Cultural Center, Rimini
  Jamia Masjad Bressanone, Bressanone
  la casa della cultura islimica, Milano Greco
  La Masjed, Venice
  la moschea di catania, Catania Porto
  MARKAZ AL ISLAMI, Segrate
  markaz al islami di terni, Terni
  Marocco Insieme, Viareggio
  MASGED ALNUR, Montecatini Terme
  MASGED ALNUR, Monsummano Terme
  Masjed Asunna, Empoli
  Masjed El Fath Zona Magliana, Roma Ostiense
  Masjid Attaqwa, Civitanova Marche
Masjid Alhudaa, Milano Porta Nuova
  Masjid At-tauba, Pinerolo
  Masjid attawhid, Crevacuore
  Masjid Moncalieri, Torino
  masjid portomaggiore, Ferrara
  MOSCHEA ASSALAM, Correggio
  Moschea del centro culturele del centro storico di Genova, Genova Piazza Principe
  Moschea del centro culturele del centro storico di Genova, Genoa
  MOSCHEA DI BRESCIA, Brescia
  Moschea di Foggia, Foggia
  Moschea di Napoli مركز و مسجد نابولي, Napoli Centrale
  MOSCHEA EL FATH , Rome
  Moschea Mokki, Rome
  moschea omar al faruk, Luino
  Moschea/ Centro Islamico Culturale, Colle Di Val D'elsa
  Moshea di Catania, Catania Centrale
  mosque, Venezia Mestre
  Mosque, Cagliari
  Mosque, Sigonella
  Mosque, Campania
  Mosque (inside the Historic City Centre), Lucca
  MOSQUE ARRAHMA, Albenga
  MOSQUE OF NAPLES, Naples
  Mosque of Torino, Torino
  MOSQUE OF TURIN, Turin
  Mosque Ruffano, Ruffano
  Multietnica di Tione, Tione Di Trento
  Muslim Association, Piemonte
  Muslim Association, Campania
  Muslim Association, Piemonte
  Muslim Association, Sardinia
  Muslim Association, Sicili
  Muslim Association, Sicili
  Muslim Association, Sicili
  Muslim Association, Sicili
  Muslim Association, Sicili
  Muslim Association, Piemonte
  Muslim Association, Puglia
  Muslim Association, Piemonte
  Muslim Association, Puglia
  Muslim Association, Piemonte
  Muslim Association, Piemonte
  Muslim Association, Piemonte
  Muslim Association, Campania
  Muslim Association, Sicili
  Muslim Association, Sicili
  Muslim Association, Campania
  Muslim Association, Sicili
  Muslim Association, Sardinia
  Muslim Association, Sicili
Muslim Association, Sicili
  Muslim Association, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Friuli
  Muslim Center, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Trentino-Alto Adige
  Muslim Center, Tuscany
  Muslim Center, Liguria
  Muslim Center, Liguria
  Muslim Center, Liguria
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Liguria
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Center, Liguria
  Muslim Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Center, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Piemonte
  Muslim Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Center, Veneto
  Muslim Center, Campania
  Muslim Center, Liguria
  Muslim Center, Abruzzi
  Muslim Center, Abruzzi
Muslim Center, Lazio
  Muslim Center, Calabria
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Campania
  Muslim Center, Campania
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Campania
  Muslim Center, Umbria
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Veneto
  Muslim Center, Veneto
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Umbria
  Muslim Center, Umbria
  Muslim Center, Umbria
  Muslim Center, Lazio
  Muslim Center, Lazio
  Muslim Center, Lazio
  Muslim Center, Lazio
  Muslim Center, Campania
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Veneto
  Muslim Center, Veneto
  Muslim Center, Tuscany
  Muslim Center, Veneto
  Muslim Center, Veneto
  Muslim Center, Friuli
  Muslim Center, Marche
  Muslim Center, Trentino-Alto Adige
  Muslim Center, Trentino-Alto Adige
  Muslim Center, Marche
  Muslim Center, Tuscany
  Muslim Center, Veneto
  Muslim Center, Veneto
  Muslim Center, Campania
  Muslim Center, Lombardy
  Muslim Center, Tuscany
  Muslim Center, Tuscany
  Muslim Center, Veneto
  Muslim Center, Tuscany
  Muslim Center, Friuli
  Muslim Center, Veneto
  Muslim Center, Veneto
  Muslim Center, Tuscany
  Muslim Center, Trentino-Alto Adige
  MUSLIM CENTER OF MILAN And LOMBARDY, Segrate
  Muslim Center (Centro Islamico Culturale d'Italia), Lazio
  MUSLIM CENTER MOSQUE, Piemonte
  Muslim Center Of Milan And Lombardy, Lombardy
  MUSLIM CULTURAL CENTER, San Remo
MUSLIM CULTURAL CENTER, UDINE
  MUSLIM CULTURAL CENTER, VERONA
  MUSLIM CULTURAL CENTER, FLORENCE
  MUSLIM CULTURAL CENTER, CORDENONS
  Muslim Cultural Center, Emilia-Romagna
  MUSLIM CULTURAL CENTER, Treviso
  Muslim Cultural Center, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Cultural Center, Asti
  MUSLIM CULTURAL CENTER - IMPERIA, Imperia
  Muslim Cultural Center of Bologna, Emilia-Romagna
  Muslim Cultural Center Of The Marches, Ancona
  MUSLIM CULTURAL INSTITUTE, Rome
  MUSLIM CULTURAL INSTITUTE, Prato
  Muslim Institute, Piemonte
  MUSLIM PEACE - CULTURAL CENTER, RESANA
  Omar Al Faruk Moschea, Varese
  Ostia mosque, Ostia Lido
  Pak islamic center Campagnola, Campagnola
  POGGIOMARINO MOSQUE, POGGIOMARINO
  RAHMA centro culturale islamice di Bari -ccib onlus, Bari
  Rome Muslim Cultural Centre, Rome
  SCAFATI MOSQUE, SCAFATI
  tarqat jseb rabitat lalem islemi, Barcellona-Pozzo Di Gotto
  THE MOSQUE OF PADOVA, Padova
  Turkish mosque, Como
  Unione comunita islamiche, Bergamo
  مسجد المدينة القديمة بجنوة, Genoa
  مسجد الرحمة, Domegliara
  مسجدالمركز الثقاقي للمدينة القديمة بجنوة, Genova Piazza Principe
  WORLD-WIDE MUSLIM ALLOY - ITALY, Rome
  ZAYD IBN THABIT ISLAMIC ASSOCIATION, Napoli
  ZAYD IBN THABIT MOSQUE, Naples
  الجمعية الثقافية الاسلامية لبوردينون, Pordenone
  الجالية الإسلامية في الترنتينو آلطو آديجيComunita' Islamica Tren, Trento
  جمعية السلام للخدمات الاجتماعية والثقافية, Brescia
  جمعية السلام الثقافية بكريفالكوري, Crevalcore
  دار الثقافة الإسلامية بإيمولا, Imola
 

Islamic Organizations and Service

  ( الجمعية الثقافية (السلام, San Dona Di Piave
  abspp, Genova Brignole
  ASSOCIAZIONE ASSALAM, Vercelli
  ASSOCIAZIONE CULTURALE ISLAMICA -makkia -montichiari, Brescia
  Associazione Culturale Islamica Badr, Molinella
  ASSOCIAZIONE CULTURALE ISLAMICA SAN SALVARIO TORINO, Torino-porta-nuova
  ASSOCIAZIONE CULTURALE KHALED BIN AL WALID, Genova Piazza Principe
  Associazione Culturale Pak, Desio
  Associazione culturali islamica di poredone, Pordenone
  Associazione di Comunità Islamica di Sassuolo, Sassuolo
  Associazione Famiglie Magrebine, Bolzano
  ASSOCIAZIONE ISLAMICA DI FIRENZE, Firenze
  Associazione Jinnah-Pak, Bolzano
  Associazione la Clemenza, Canale
  Casa della cultura islamica di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia
  CENTRE OF ISLAMIC CULTURE & STUDIES, Romagna
  centro culturale islamico di casalpusterlengo, Milan
  Centro culturele islamico khalid ibn alwalid, Genoa
  centro cuturale valle seriana, Bergamo
  CENTRO ISLAMICO CULTURALE, Genova
  CENTRO ISLAMICO CULTURALE, Ancona
  Consiglio Islamico di Verona -ONLUS-, Verona Porta Nuova
  G.M.I. giovani musulmani d'italia, Milano
  GMI, Milan
  IL LUME المشكاة, Mirandola
  Islamic Culturale Center, Pisa
  Islamic Relief Italia, Milan
  ISLAMIC RELIEF ITALY, Udine
  Islamic Society of Sigonella, Sicily
  Islamic Union, Rome
  Italian Intrernational Association for Information on Islam, Milan
  ITALIAN MUSLIM ASSOCIATION, Rome
  MACELLERIA MUSULMANA, Genoa
  Miasino Islamic center, Miasino
  Muslim Student Union, Rome
  Unione della Studente Musulmane in Italia, Mezzocorona
  Unione delle Comunità ed Organizzazioni Islamiche in Italia, Roma
  Young Muslims of Italy - Turin Office, Turin
  Young Muslims of Torino, Torino
  المركز الثقافي الاسلامي بتريستة, Triest
  الجمعية الإسلامية للشباب المغربي, Vicenza
  الجمعية الثقافية الاسلامية بموطا, Motta Di Levenza
  جمعية الجالية الاسلامية، السلام, Castelfranco Veneto
 

Islamic Schools/Colleges

Al-Ummah Saturday School, Rome
  CENTRO ISLAMICO CULTURALE, Rome
  Circolo richriativo culturale privato, Fabriano
  Ikra international school, Rome
  Islamic Cultural Institute, Milan
  Kamil Enterprises Import & Export, Milan
  lega islamica autonoma in vallee d'aosta, Aosta
  Masgid attawhid, Rimini/Miramare
  Scuola Almedina della Lingua Araba di Sassuolo, Sassuolo
  مدرسة الاخلاص, Brescia
  مدرسة الجالية الإسلامية في نابولي, Napoli Centrale
  مدرسة دار الثقافة الاسلامية للعربية, Reggio Emilia
  المعهد الاسلامي الثقافي بتوسكانا, Santa Croce Sull' Arno
 

   Muslim Owned Business

Abul Kalam Phone & Internet Center, Naples
  AL AMAN PHONE, Crevacuore
  Al Madina, Pisa
  Aladin (Kebab house), Naples
  Alibaba Kabab, Milan
  Ali\\\\\\\' Baba\\\\\\\' (Kebab) Di Muhammad Naeem & C. S.N.C., Viareggio
  aljawhara and aljazera, Bergamo
  Arghilastour, Perugia
  Bazar Agadir, Rimini
  BAZAR AGADIR E C. SNC, Modena
  bazar dei sapori maccelleria halal, Treviso
  Bazar El Wafa, Modena
  Bazar haidar, Milan
  BAZAR TAIBA, Milan
  BAZAR ZAID, Besozzo
  Bookstore of Marrakech, Rome
  cafee-ristorante yasmine, Turin
  Doner Kebab, Lucca, Lucca
  Doner-Kebab, Firenze
  El Massry, Rome
  El Quods s.a.s, Naples
  FAM Phone Center and General Store, Naples
  FAST COMUNICATION, Florence
  Halal Meat Shop/ Carne Halal, Lucca
  hamzah Advertising Ag. Pubblicità, Turin
  Hamzah Halal Advertising service, Mestre
  hamzah' advertising, Venice
  ISLAMICO MARCELLERIA ATLAS, Monsummano Terme
  ISLAMICO MARCELLERIA ATLAS, Montecatini Terme
  ITALYTEX, Como
  Kebab Ali Baba, Trieste
  La Comunita Islamica In Italia, Milan
  LIBRERIA ISLAMICA IMAN, Milano
  MACELLERIA RAYAN ISLAMICA , Turin
  Macelleria al maghreb al Arabi di benlouali noureddine, Bonate Di Sopra
  macelleria al salem, Viterbo
  macelleria ALQODS,carni halal e prodotti arabi e islamici ., Cesena
  MACELLERIA ISLAMICA, Salsomaggiore Terme
  Macelleria La Pace, Forlimpopoli
  Mahalat Faid Ahmed, Bergamo
  Mini Market, Firenze
  PHONE CENTER HATEM SOBH, Sesto San Giovanni
  Pizzeria Sharm Elsheik, Viterbo
  Punto phone e net ichrak, Pavullo
  restaurente islamico lagoulette, Parma
  RISTORANTE DIAFA, Spoleto
  RISTORANTE INDIANO INN, Trieste
  Salama viaggi أسفار سلامة, Vicenza
  sara pizzeria kebab dardar abdelhamid, Milan
  Sharm El Sheik Resturant, Rome
Shawarma Station, Rome
  sherif artigianato, Rome
  SIDI-MARKET,لحم حلال ,PRODOTTI TIPICI MAROCCHINI,E ALTRO..., Cesena
  sindbad kebab, Torino-porta-nuova
  SKY TRADERS PHONE CENTER, Prato
  Super Pizza Allam Fayez, Rome
  Tayyab Donner Kebab, Florence
  THE GLOBELINK INTERNAZIONALE, CASTANO PRIMO
  Usman Doner Kebab, Milan
  مجزرة المروة الإسلامية, Firenze
  مجزرة عبدا لله, Firenze
  West Coast Halal Small Goods, Bentley
  West Coast Halal Small Goods, Bentley
  المزرعة الأسلامية, Mantova
  الجزارة الاسلامية بجنوة, Genoa
 
جزارة منار الإسلامية, Casalpusterlengo

References
Islam in Italy ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Italy  , November, 2008).
Info please ( http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107658.html ,  November, 2008).
Islam Finder ( http://www.islamicfinder.org/cityPrayerNew.php?country=italy  , November, 2008).
World Religions Statistics ( http://www.adherents.com/adhloc/xx , November, 2008).
Anonymous, Documents from Representatives of Islamic Organizations in Italy, November 2008.