ISLAM and MUSLIMS IN ROMANIA

      

General Information

President: Traian Basescu (2007)

Land area: 88,934 sq mi (230,339 sq km); total area: 91,699 sq mi (237,500 sq km)

Population (2007 est.): 22,276,056

Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Bucharest, 2,210,800 (metro. area), 1,906,800 (city proper)

Other large cities: Iasi, 320,000; Cluj-Napoca, 316,400; Timisoara, 316,100; Constanta, 309,000; Craiova, 301,100, Galati, 297,100; Brasov, 282,500

Monetary unit: lei

Languages: Romanian 91% (official), Hungarian 6.7%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 1.2%

Ethnicity/race: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma (Gyspy) 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002)

Religions: Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1% (2002 census)

Literacy rate: 98% (2003 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2007 est.): $245.5billion; per capita $11,400. Real growth rate: 6%. Inflation: 4.8%.

Romania is in southeast Europe and is slightly smaller than Oregon. The Carpathian Mountains divide Romania's upper half from north to south and connect near the center of the country with the Transylvanian Alps, running east and west. North and west of these ranges lies the Transylvanian plateau, and to the south and east are the plains of Moldavia and Walachia. In its last 190 mi (306 km), the Danube River flows through Romania only. It enters the Black Sea in northern Dobruja, just south of the border with Ukraine.

Most of Romania was the Roman province of Dacia from about A.D. 100 to 271. From the 3rd to the 12th century, wave after wave of barbarian conquerors overran the native Daco-Roman population. Subjection to the first Bulgarian Empire (8th–10th century) brought Eastern Orthodox Christianity to the Romanians. In the 11th century, Transylvania was absorbed into the Hungarian empire. By the 16th century, the main Romanian principalities of Moldavia and Walachia had become satellites within the Ottoman Empire, although they retained much independence. After the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829, they became Russian protectorates. The nation became a kingdom in 1881 after the Congress of Berlin.

At the start of World War I, Romania proclaimed its neutrality, but it later joined the Allied side and in 1916 declared war on the Central Powers. The armistice of Nov. 11, 1918, gave Romania vast territories from Russia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, doubling its size. The areas acquired included Bessarabia, Transylvania, and Bukovina. The Banat, a Hungarian area, was divided with Yugoslavia. King Carol II was crowned in 1930 and transformed the throne into a royal dictatorship. In 1938, he abolished the democratic constitution of 1923. In 1940, the country was reorganized along Fascist lines, and the Fascist Iron Guard became the nucleus of the new totalitarian party. On June 27, the Soviet Union occupied Bessarabia and northern Bukovina. King Carol II dissolved parliament, granted the new prime minister, Ion Antonescu, full power, abdicated his throne, and went into exile.

Romania subsequently signed the Axis Pact on Nov. 23, 1940, and the following June joined in Germany's attack on the Soviet Union, reoccupying Bessarabia. About 270,000 Jews were massacred in Fascist Romania. Following the invasion of Romania by the Red Army in Aug. 1944, King Michael led a coup that ousted the Antonescu government. An armistice with the Soviet Union was signed in Moscow on Sept. 12, 1944. A Communist-dominated government bloc won elections in 1946, Michael abdicated on Dec. 30, 1947, and in 1955 Romania joined the Warsaw Treaty Organization and the United Nations.

Running a neo-Stalinist police state from 1967–1989, Nicolae Ceausescu wound the iron curtain tightly around Romania, turning a moderately prosperous country into one at the brink of starvation. To repay his $10 billion foreign debt in 1982, he ransacked the Romanian economy of everything that could be exported, leaving the country with desperate shortages of food, fuel, and other essentials. An army-assisted rebellion in Dec. 1989 led to Ceausescu's overthrow, trial, and execution.

An ex-Communist, Ion Iliescu of the National Salvation Front, served as president from 1990–1995.

Islamic History and Muslims

Islam in Romania is followed by only 0.3 percent of population, but has 700 years of tradition in Northern Dobruja, a region on the Black Sea coast which was part of the Ottoman Empire for almost five centuries (ca. 1420-1878). In present-day Romania, most adherents to Islam belong to the Tatar and Turkish ethnic communities and follow the Sunni doctrine. The Islamic religion is one of the 16 rites awarded state recognition.

First established locally around legendary Sufi leader Sari Saltik during the Byzantine epoch, the Islamic presence in Northern Dobruja was invigorated by Ottoman overseeing and successive waves of immigration, but has been in steady decline since the late 19th century. In Wallachia and Moldavia, the two Danubian Principalities, the era of Ottoman suzerainty was not accompanied by a growth in the number of Muslims, whose presence there was always marginal. Also linked to the Ottoman Empire, groups of Islamic colonists in other parts of present-day Romania were relocated by the Habsburg expansion or by various other political changes.

After Northern Dobruja became part of Romania following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the community preserved its self-determining status. This changed during the communist regime, when Romanian Muslims were subject to a measure of repressive supervision by the state, but the group again emancipated itself after the Romanian Revolution of 1989. Its interests are represented by the Muftiyat (Muftiyatul Cultului Musulman din România), which was created as the reunion of two separate such institutions.

According to the 2002 census, 67,566 people, approx. 0.3 of the total population, indicated that their religion was Islam. The vast majority of Romania's believers in Islam are Sunnis who adhere to the Hanafi school. Ethnically, they are mostly Tatars (Crimean Tatars and a number of Nogais), followed by Turks, as well as Muslim Roma (as much as 15,000 people in one estimate), Albanians (as many as 3,000), and groups of Middle Eastern immigrants. Members of the Muslim community inside the Roma minority are colloquially known as "Turkish Romani". Traditionally, they are less religious then people belonging to other Islamic communities, and their culture mixes Islamic customs with Roma social norms.

Ninety-seven percent of the Romanian Muslims are residents of the two counties forming Northern Dobruja: eighty-five percent live in Constanţa County, and twelve percent in Tulcea County. The rest mainly inhabit urban centers such as Bucharest, Brăila, Călăraşi, Galaţi, Giurgiu, and Drobeta-Turnu Severin.

In all, Romania has as many as eighty mosques, or, according to records kept by the Romanian Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs, seventy-seven. The city of Constanţa, with its Carol I Mosque and the location of the Muftiyat, is the center of Romanian Islam; Mangalia, near Constanţa, is the site of a monumental mosque, built in 1525 (see Mangalia Mosque). The two mosques are state-recognized historical monuments, as are the ones in Hârşova, Amzacea, Babadag and Tulcea, together with the Babadag tombs of two popularly revered Sufi sheikhs—the supposed tomb of dervish Sari Saltik and that of Gazi Ali Paşa. There are also 108 Islamic cemeteries in Romania.

The nation-wide Islamic community is internally divided into 50 local groups of Muslims, each of whom elects its own leadership committee. Members provide funding for the religious institution, which is supplemented by state donations and subsidies, as well by assistance from international Islamic organizations.

The Muslim clergy in Romania includes imams, imam-hatips, and muezzinsAs of 2008, the Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs recognizes 35 imams. The Constanţa Mufti, who is the community's main representative, is elected by a secret ballot from among the imams.He is assisted by a synodal body, the Sura Islam, which comprises 23 members and offers advice on matters of administration and discipline. The current Mufti is Murat Iusuf.


History

Early presence
The first significant numbers of Muslims arrived in Romania with the Pechenegs and Cumans. Around 1061, when the Pechenegs ruled in Wallachia and Moldavia, there was a Muslim minority among them, as was among the Cumans. The Cumans followed the Pechenegs in 1171, while the Hungarian kings settled the Pechenegs in Transylvania and other parts of their kingdom.

Muslim presence is traditional in Dobruja, and partly predates both Ottoman rule and the creation of the neighboring Danubian Principalities. Both the Pechengs and Cumans were present in the area, where they probably established a number of small communities. Around 1260, two Rûm Seljuq community leaders, the deposed Sultan Kaykaus II and the mystic Sari Saltik, were allowed to settle the region during the reign of Michael VIII Palaiologos, ruler of the Byzantine Empire.Kaykaus, who arrived in Dobruja with his brother and co-ruler Kilij Arslan IV, was reportedly followed by as many as 12,000 of his subjects. Researchers such as Franz Babinger and Gheorghe I. Brătianu endorse the view that Saltuk and his followers were in fact crypto-Shiite Alevis who were regarded as apostates by the dominant Sunni group of central Anatolia, and who sought refuge from persecution.

The exact location of their earliest area of settlement is disputed: a group of historians proposes that the group was probably tasked with defending the Byzantine border to the north, and settled in and around what later became known as Babadag, while another one centers this presence on the Southern Dobrujan strip of land known as Kaliakra (presently in Bulgaria). In addition, various historians argue that this Seljuq migration was the decisive contributor to the ethnogenesis of the Gagauz people, which, some of them believe, could also have involved the Cumans, Pechenegs, Oghuz and other Turkic peoples. The Gagauz, few of whom have endured in Dobruja, are majority Eastern Orthodox, a fact which was attributed to a process of religious conversion from Islam.

The presence of Tatars was notably attested through the works of Berber traveler Ibn Battuta, who passed through the area in 1334. In Ibn Battuta's time, the region was regarded as a westernmost possession of the Tatar Golden Horde, a khanate centered on the Eurasian Steppe.Archeology has uncovered that another Tatar group, belonging to the Golden Horde, came to Dobruja during the rule of Nogai Khan, and were probably closely related to the present-day Nogais. Following Timur's offensives, the troops of Aktai Khan visited the region in the mid-14th century and around 100,000 Tatars settled there.

Before and after the Golden Horde fell, Dobrujan Muslims, like the Crimean Tatars, were recipients of its cultural influences, and the language in use was Kipchak. The extension of Ottoman rule, effected under Sultans Bayezid I and Mehmed I,brought the influence of Medieval Turkish,as Dobruja was added to the Beylerbeylik of Rumelia.

The grave of Sari Saltik, reportedly first erected into a monument by Sultan Bayezid, has since endured as a major shrine in Romanian Islam.The shrine, which has been described as a cenotaph, is one of many places where the Sheikh is supposed to be buried: a similar tradition is held by various local communities throughout the Balkans, who argue that his tomb is located in Kaliakra, Babaeski, Blagaj, Edirne, the Has District, Krujë, or Sveti Naum. Other accounts hold that Saltuk was buried in the Anatolian city of İznik, in Buzău, Wallachia, or even as far south as the Mediterranean island of Corfu or as far north as the Polish city of Gdańsk. The toponym Babadağ (Turkish for "Old Man's Mountain", later adapted into Romanian as Babadag) is a probable reference to Sari Saltik, and a Dobrujan Muslim account recorded by chronicler Evliya Çelebi in the late 15th century has it that the name surfaced soon after a Christian attack partly destroyed the tomb.

The oldest madrasah in Dobruja and Romania as a whole was set up in Babadag, on orders from Bayezid (1484); it was moved to Medgidia in 1903. From the same period onwards, groups of Muslim Tatars and Oghuz Turks from Anatolia were settled into Dobruja at various intervals; in 1525, a sizable group of these, originating from the ports of Samsun and Sinop, moved to Babadag. Bayezid also asked Volga Tatars to resettle into northern Dobruja.


In late medieval Wallachia and Moldavia
In the two Danubian Principalities, Ottoman suzerainty had an overall reduced impact on the local population, and the impact of Islam was itself much reduced. Wallachia and Moldavia enjoyed a large degree of autonomy, and their history was punctuated by episodes of revolt and momentary independence. After 1417, when Ottoman domination over Wallachia first became effective, the towns of Turnu and Giurgiu were annexed as kazas, a rule enforced until the Treaty of Adrianople in 1829 (the status was briefly extended to Brăila in 1542).

For the following centuries, three conversions in the ranks of acting or former local hospodars are documented: Wallachian Princes Radu cel Frumos (1462-1475) and Mihnea Turcitul (1577-1591), and Moldavian Prince Ilie II Rareş (1546-1551). At the other end of the social spectrum, Moldavia held a sizable population of Tatar slaves, who shared this status with all local Roma people (see Slavery in Romania). While Roma slavery also existed in Wallachia, the presence of Tatar slaves there has not been documented, and is only theorized. The population may have foremost comprised Muslim Nogais from the Bujak who were captured in skirmishes, although, according to one theory, the first of them may have been Cumans captured long before the first Ottoman and Tatar incursions.

The issue of Muslim presence on the territory of the two countries is often viewed in relation to the relations between the Ottoman Sultans and local Princes. Romanian historiography has generally claimed that the latter two were bound by bilateral treaties with the Porte. One of the main issues was that of Capitulations (Ottoman Turkish: ahdnâme), which were supposedly agreed between the two states and the Ottoman Empire at some point in the Middle Ages. Such documents have not been preserved: modern Romanian historians have revealed that Capitulations, as invoked in the 18th and 19th centuries to invoke Romanian rights vis à vis the Ottomans, and as reclaimed by nationalist discourse in the 20th century, were forgeries.

Traditionally, Ottoman documents referring to Wallachia and Moldavia were unilateral decrees issued by the Sultan. In one compromise version published in 1993, Romanian historian Mihai Maxim argues that, although these were unilateral acts, they were viewed as treaties by the Wallachian and Moldavian rulers. Research carried out in the 2000s claims to have discovered genuine Capitulations and other documents taken as proof that the relations between the Danubian Principalities and the Porte did indeed have a contractual character.

Provisions toward Muslim-Christian relations have traditionally been assessed by taking in view later policies. According to one prominent interpretation, this would mean that the Principalities were regarded by the Ottomans as belonging to the Dâr al ahd' ("Home of Peace"), a status granted to them in exchange for material gains. Therefore, the Ottoman Empire did not maintain troops or garrisons or build military facilities. Instead, as it happened in several instances, Ottoman Sultans allowed their Tatar subjects to raid Moldavia or Wallachia as a means to punish the dissent of local Princes. Literary historian Ioana Feodorov notes that the relations between the two smaller states and the Ottoman suzerain were based on a set of principles and rules to which the Ottoman Empire adhered, and indicates that, early in the 17th century, this system drew admiration from the Arabic-speaking Christian traveler Paul of Aleppo.


17th-19th century
By the 17th century, according to the notes of traveler Evliya Çelebi, Dobruja was also home to a distinct community of people of mixed Turkish and Wallachian heritage. Additionally, a part of the Dobrujan Roma community has traditionally adhered to Islam; it is believed that it originated with groups of Romani people serving in the Ottoman Army during the 16th century, and has probably incorporated various ethnic Turks who had not settled down in the cities or villages. Alongside Dobruja, a part of present-day Romania under direct Ottoman rule in 1551-1718 was the Eyalet of Temeşvar (the Banat region of western Romania), which extended as far as Arad (1551-1699) and Oradea (1661-1699). The few thousand Muslims settled there were, however, driven out by Habsburg conquest.

The presence of Muslims in the two Danubian Principalities was also attested, centering on Turkish traders and small communities of Muslim Roma. It is also attested that, during later Phanariote rules and the frequent Russo-Turkish Wars, Ottoman troops were stationed on Wallachia's territory.

Following the Crimean Khanate's conquest by the Russian Empire (1783), many Tatars there took refuge in Dobruja, especially around Medgidia. At the time, Crimean Tatars had become the largest community in the region. Nogais in the Budjak began to arrive upon the close of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–1812, when the Budjak and Bessarabia were ceded to Russia (they settled in northern Tulcea County - Isaccea and Babadag). Khotyn, once part of Moldavia, was the birthplace of Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, who was the Ottoman Grand Vizier until 1808. Two more Grand Viziers between 1821 and 1828 came from Bender (a once Moldavian city), as Benderli Pashas.

Over the same period, large groups of Circassians (as many as 200,000), refugees from the Caucasian War, were resettled in the Dobruja and northern Bulgaria by the Ottomans (localities with large Circassian populace included Isaccea, Slava Cercheză, Crucea, Horia, and Nicolae Bălcescu). During the 1860s, a significant number of Nogais, also fleeing Russian conquest, left their homes in the Caucasus and joined in the exodus to Dobruja. Members of other Muslim communities which joined in the colonization included Arabs (a group of 150 families of fellahin from Syria Province, brought over in 1831-1833), Kurds, and Persians—all of these three communities were quickly integrated into the Tatar-Turkish mainstream.


Kingdom of Romania
Tatars in Tulcea County were driven out by Russian troops during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 (see Muhajir Balkan). Following the conflict and the Berlin Congress, the Romanian government of Ion Brătianu agreed to extend civil rights to non-Christians. In 1923 a monument in the shape of a small mosque was built in Bucharest's Carol Park, as sign of reconciliation after World War I. A small Muslim community resided on Ada Kaleh island in the Danube, south of the Banat, an Ottoman enclave and later part of Austria-Hungary, which was transferred to Romania in 1878.

At the end of the Second Balkan War in 1913, the Kingdom of Romania came to include Southern Dobruja, whose population was over 50% Turkish (the region was ceded to Bulgaria in 1940). As recorded after World War I, Romania had a population of 200,000 Muslims from a total of 7 million, the majority of which were Turks who lived in the two areas of Dobruja (as many as 178,000). Since 1877, the community was led by four separate muftiyats. Their number was reduced during the interwar period, when the cities of Constanţa and Tulcea each housed a muftiyat. In 1943, the two institutions were again unified around the mufi in Constanţa. Outside Dobruja, the relatively small presence of Albanian Muslims also left a cultural imprint: in 1921, the first translation of the Qur'an into the Albanian language was completed by Ilo Mitke Qafëzezi in the Wallachian city of Ploieşti.

Until after World War II, the overall religiously conservative and apolitical Muslim population reportedly enjoyed a notable degree of religious tolerance. Nevertheless, after 1910, the community was subject to a steady decline, and many predominantly-Muslim villages were abandoned.

Communism and post-Revolution period
The Dobrujan Muslim community was exposed to cultural repression during Communist Romania. After 1948, all property of the Islamic institutions became state-owned. The following year, the state-run and secular compulsory education system set aside special classes for Tatar and Turkish children.According to Irwin, this was part of an attempt to create a separate Tatar literary language, intended as a means to assimilate the Tatar community. A reported decline in standards led to the separate education agenda being ceased in 1957. As a consequence, education in Tatar dialects and Turkish was eliminated in stages after 1959, becoming optional, while the madrasah in Medgidia was shut down in the 1960s. The population of Ada Kaleh relocated to Anatolia shortly before the 1968 construction of the Đerdap dam by a joint Yugoslav-Romanian venture, which resulted in the island being flooded. At the same time, Sufi tradition was frowned upon by Communist officials—as a result of their policies, the Sufi groups became almost completely inactive.

However, according to historian Zachary T. Irwin, the degree to which the Muslim community was repressed and dispersed was lower in Romania than in other countries of Eastern Europe, and the measures were less severe than, for instance, those taken against Romanian Roman Catholics and Protestants. The state sponsored an edition of the Qur'an, and top clerics such as Mufti Iacub Mehmet and Bucharest Imam Regep Sali, represented the community in the Great National Assembly during Nicolae Ceauşescu's years in office. In the 1980s, a delegation of Romanian Muslims visited Iran after the Islamic Revolution succeeded in that country. They also adhered to international bodies sponsored by Libya and Saudi Arabia. These gestures, according to Irwin, brought only a few objections from the regime.

Following the Romanian Revolution of 1989, Tatar and Turkish were again added to the curriculum for members of the respective communities, and, in 1993, the Medgidia madrasah was reopened as a Theological and Pedagogic High School named after Turkish President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.The school was later elevated to National College status, and is known in Romanian as Colegiul Naţional Kemal Atatürk. Since the 1990s, the official representatives of the Muslim community maintain close relations with international non-governmental organizations such as the Muslim World League.

 

Mangalia Mosque ("Esmahan Sultan") is the oldest mosque in Romania, being built in 1525 by Esmahan, the daughter of Ottoman sultan Selim II. Located in Mangalia, Constanţa County, it serves a community of 800 Muslim families, most of them of Turkish and Tatar ethnicity. It was renovated in the 1990s and includes a graveyard with 300-year old tombstones.

Carol I Mosque in Constanţa was commissioned in 1910 by the King of Romania and built in a Moorish style. It replaced the previous mosque from 1822. It is similar to the Konia Mosque in Anatolia (Turkey). It has rich interior wall paintings. The minaret (50 m high) offers a view of the city and harbour.

 

Mosque, Medgidia, Romania

Huciar Mosque, Was built in 1868 using the stones for the old gate of Ottoman fortress which had all the walls destroyed during Russian-Ottoman War in 1828. The Moorish architectural style corresponds to the Muslim culture characteristics; the tower is 24 meters high.Constanta, 39, Tomis Blvd.

 

Babadag Town

 

Romania Ramadan…New Muslims Take Lead

Cherim Enghin, IOl Correspondent


"Ramadan….in the best time to get to know each other and work in a loving environment for the sake of Allah," Hoisan (C) told IOL. Bucharest — Romania's new Muslims are taking a central role during the holy fasting month of Ramadan, offering iftar meals and building bridges with fellow Muslims.

"This is the first time in Romania when reverts are directly in charge with activities for Ramadan," Robert Hoisan, the Bucharest representative of the Muslim Association of Romania, told IslamOnline.net. "For example, in this Ramadan, we are organizing evening meals for breaking the daily fast in different places inside the country."

Hoisan and his colleague Dan Michi want to offer as many iftars as possible. "Wherever there is a group of 3 to 4 Muslims, inshallah, we want to be there, together with our brothers and sisters," he said. "Some of us are already helping in sharing iftars within the big cities where thousands of Muslims are living, cities like Constanta for example.

"But our own strategy as young Romanian Muslims is to share iftars in some of the small cities as well." In Ramadan, adult Muslims, save the sick and those traveling, abstain from food, drink, smoking and sex between dawn and sunset. Muslims dedicate their time during the holy month to become closer to Allah through prayer and self-restraint.

"Ramadan is a tremendous blessing for the one who fasts and also the best time to get to know each other and work in a loving environment for the sake of Allah," Hoisan said. "In our hearts it’s indeed great joy and happiness because in the month of Ramadan we are making our connection with Allah even stronger."
 

                                              "Ramadan….in the best time to get to know each other and work in a loving environment for the sake of Allah," Hoisan (C) told IOL.
 

                                     The Muslim Association of Romania is offering free iftar meals.


The Muslim Association of Romania is offering free iftar meals. The Muslim Association of Romania is trying to network with all Muslims in the European country. "I should say we started by making a list of Romanian reverts to Islam and by getting in touch with every one of them," said Hoisan. "We invite them to the masjid. We organize meetings and discuss the future of the Muslim community from our point of view."

The Muslim activist underlined the importance of getting to know more about one's new faith. "The holy Quran and the teaching of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) must be a central point in every aspect of our life.

"This is why we are trying to learn as much as we can so we can share our knowledge with new Muslims or with any person interested in Islam," said Hoisan. "Taking that in consideration, we are constantly inviting Romanian converts to the masjid and with the help of local imams Islamic lessons are taking place weekly." He noted that sermons and lectures are being given on a daily basis during Ramadan.

Members of the Muslim Association are planning a special trip to the city of Ploiesti near Bucharest to help a new Muslim with disabilities.
"He sent us a letter asking for help in learning Islam better. Inshallah, we will go soon, give him books and show him the love we all must show to our brothers and sister in need," said Hoisan.

"This Ramadan is also special because we notice that more and more people enter Islam here in Romania." There are some 70,000 Muslims in Romanian, mostly hailing from Turkey and Albania. They make up two percent of the country’s 22 million population.               ( http://www.islamonline.net/english/news/2008-09/14/04.shtml  )
 

  Islamic Centers and Organizations

M&M Company, Bucharest
Phone: 409-2669992
Liga Islamica si Culturala din Romania, Constanta, Bucurast,timisoara,cluj,ias,co
URL: www.islam.ro   Phone: +4021-2411318

PROLEMN SA, Reghin, ROMANIA
Phone: 40265-512362
Islamic cultural centre Semiluna, Bucharest, Romania
Phone: +4021-2219732
Jamiah macin {turc/tatar}, Macin, Romaina
Phone: +40240
Liga Islamica si Cultrala-Romania-Iasi, Iasi, IASI
URL: www.islam.ro   Phone: 0040744404537

ASSALAM ASSOCIATION, Bucharest
Phone: 0040-(0)21-7783714

Sofa & Bed, Timisoara, RM VILCEA

ISLAMIC STUDENTS ASSOCIATION, Craiova

THE ISLAMIC CULTURAL ASSOCIATION IN ROMANIA, Timisoara
URL: www.lig.ro   Phone: 40-256-221283

  Fundatia Taiba - Romania, Constanta
  Islamic cultural centre Semiluna, Bucharest
  ISLAMIC STUDENTS ASSOCIATION, Craiova
  Jamiah macin {turc/tatar}, Macin
  Liga Iskamica Si Culturala din Romania, Bucharest
  Liga Islamica si Cultrala-Romania-Iasi, Iasi
  liga islamica si culturala, Cluj-Napoca
  liga islamica si culturala din romania, Bucharest
  liga islamica si culturala din romania, Timisoara
  Liga Islamica si Culturala din Romania, Constanta
  liga islamica si culturala romania, Cluj-Napoca
  Mosqa Turkie, Bucharest
  mosque, Ploiesti
  Mosque in Bucuresti, Bucarest
  muslim mosques, Ploiesti Est
  TAIBA INTERNATIONAL FUNDATION, Bucharest
  يد مسجد شارع كافانا, Pitesti

  Asociatia Musulmanilor din Romania, Constanta
  ASSALAM ASSOCIATION, Bucharest
  MKM&M Company, Bucharest
  Muslim Association of Romania, Bucharest
  Muslim Students Association, Timisoara
  THE ISLAMIC CULTURAL ASSOCIATION IN ROMANIA, Timisoara
  WAMY OFFICE, Timisoara

  Private arabic language teacser for non-Arabs, Oradea
  مدرسه القدس ببوخارست, Bucharest

   Muslim Owned Business

  Alrashedeen, Iasi
  Automobile Medias, Medias
  Bux & sons Srl, Bucharest
  El Bacha, Bucharest
  Golden Falcon, Bucharest
  Itimat computer and electonic, Bucharest
  muslim businesses(taiba), Constanta
  PROLEMN SA, Reghin
  Sahra, Bucharest
  SC Fitness Land SRL(ltd), Tirgu Mures
  Sc Shafey Group SRL, Arad
  Sofa & Bed, Timisoara
  Subhi.ro, Bucharest

References
Islam in Romania ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Romania   , October, 2008).
Info please ( http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107905.html ,  October, 2008).
Islam Finder ( http://www.islamicfinder.org/cityPrayerNew.php?country=romania  , October, 2008).
World Religions Statistics ( http://www.adherents.com/adhloc/xx , October, 2008).
Anonymous, Documents from Representatives of Islamic Organizations in Romania, October 2008.